3Section 1: Rocks and Weathering Review:What are mountains made of?RocksHow are rocks made into mountains?Plate tectonicsWhat do you think happens to rock once it is exposed to the surface of the Earth?Weathering and Erosion
4Can you think of examples of weathering? Weathering is the process that breaks down rock and other substances at Earth’s surface.Heat, cold, water, ice, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are elements of weathering.Can you think of examples of weathering?
6Erosion Weathering breaks down rock… Erosion is the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice and gravity.Weathering and erosion work together to break down and carry away rocks at Earth’s surface
7UniformitarianismUniformitarianism is the principle that states that the process we see today are the same as those in the past.This is how scientists make hypotheses about things that occurred in the past.
92 kinds of Weathering: Mechanical & Chemical Mechanical Weathering is when rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.Smaller pieces are the same composition as the larger piecesTakes long periods of timeCan break down mountains!
10Causes of Mechanical Weathering Freezing, thawing, release of pressure, plant growth, animals, abrasion
11AbrasionAbrasion is the grinding away of rock by particles carried in wind, water, ice, or gravity.
16Chemical WeatheringChemical weathering is the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.Causes include action of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organisms, and acid rain
17Chemical WeatheringChemical weathering can change or produce new minerals as it breaks down rockExample: granite is made of several minerals (feldspar, quartz, & mica)During chemical weathering, the feldspar minerals are changed to clay minerals.
19Chemical and Mechanical Weathering Work Together Chemical weathering creates soft spots or holes in rocks so the rock breaks apart more easilyChemical and mechanical weathering work together how?Mechanical weathering creates more surface area to be exposed to chemical weathering
20the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice and gravity. ReviewWeathering is?the process that breaks down rock and other substances at Earth’s surface.Erosion is?the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice and gravity.
21when rock is physically broken into smaller pieces. Uniformitarianism is?the principle that states that the process we see today are the same as those in the past.Mechanical Weathering is?when rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
24the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. Chemical weathering is?the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.Chemical and mechanical weathering work together how?Mechanical weathering creates more surface area to be exposed to chemical weathering
25Read about the 5 types of chemical weathering. On your ownRead about the 5 types of chemical weathering.In the same notes we have been working on, write each of these elements and how they help to break down rock.
26Chemical Weathering Water: dissolves rock Oxygen: when in contact with iron it oxidizes (rusts) makes rock crumbly and brown/red.Carbon dioxide: dissolves in water and creates weak acid (carbonic acid). Easily weathers rocks
27Chemical WeatheringLiving Organisms: Plant roots can produce weak acids that break down rockAcid rain: chemicals from burning fossil fuels (sulfur, carbon, nitrogen) combine with water vapor and fall as acid rain. Acid easily breaks down rock.
28Slate tombstones from the 1700s are less weathered and easier to read than marble tombstones from the 1800s.Why?
30Rate of WeatheringFactors that affect the rate of weathering are the type of rock and the climate.1. Type of rock:type of minerals determine how fast a rock weathersPermeable rocks (those with air holes) allow water to seep in
31Rate of Weathering 2. Climate: Average weather in an area Both chemical and mechanical weathering occur faster in wet climates.Chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperaturesHot, wet climate = faster rate of weathering
32With a partner that I choose….. Complete the Math: Analyzing Data questions on 244Complete the Section 1 Assessment ?’s 1-3 on page 245