Presentation on theme: "Write briefly about a truly scientific observation you made over the break. I will only call on 3 of you to share."— Presentation transcript:
Write briefly about a truly scientific observation you made over the break. I will only call on 3 of you to share
Review: What are mountains made of? Rocks How are rocks made into mountains? Plate tectonics What do you think happens to rock once it is exposed to the surface of the Earth? Weathering and Erosion
Weathering is the process that breaks down rock and other substances at Earth’s surface. Heat, cold, water, ice, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are elements of weathering. Can you think of examples of weathering?
Weathering breaks down rock… Erosion is the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice and gravity. Weathering and erosion work together to break down and carry away rocks at Earth’s surface
Uniformitarianism is the principle that states that the process we see today are the same as those in the past. This is how scientists make hypotheses about things that occurred in the past.
Mechanical Weathering is when rock is physically broken into smaller pieces. Smaller pieces are the same composition as the larger pieces Takes long periods of time Can break down mountains!
Freezing, thawing, release of pressure, plant growth, animals, abrasion
Abrasion is the grinding away of rock by particles carried in wind, water, ice, or gravity.
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF WEATHERING? GIVE AN EXAMPLE.
Ice wedging is the process of liquid water settling into cracks in rocks, freezing and cracking the rock as it expands
Chemical weathering is the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. Causes include action of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organisms, and acid rain
Chemical weathering can change or produce new minerals as it breaks down rock Example: granite is made of several minerals (feldspar, quartz, & mica) During chemical weathering, the feldspar minerals are changed to clay minerals.
Chemical weathering creates soft spots or holes in rocks so the rock breaks apart more easily Chemical and mechanical weathering work together how? Mechanical weathering creates more surface area to be exposed to chemical weathering
Weathering is? the process that breaks down rock and other substances at Earth’s surface. Erosion is? the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice and gravity.
Uniformitarianism is? the principle that states that the process we see today are the same as those in the past. Mechanical Weathering is? when rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.
Chemical weathering is? the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. Chemical and mechanical weathering work together how? Mechanical weathering creates more surface area to be exposed to chemical weathering
Read about the 5 types of chemical weathering. In the same notes we have been working on, write each of these elements and how they help to break down rock.
Water: dissolves rock Oxygen: when in contact with iron it oxidizes (rusts) makes rock crumbly and brown/red. Carbon dioxide: dissolves in water and creates weak acid (carbonic acid). Easily weathers rocks
Living Organisms: Plant roots can produce weak acids that break down rock Acid rain: chemicals from burning fossil fuels (sulfur, carbon, nitrogen) combine with water vapor and fall as acid rain. Acid easily breaks down rock.
Slate tombstones from the 1700s are less weathered and easier to read than marble tombstones from the 1800s. Why?
Factors that affect the rate of weathering are the type of rock and the climate. 1. Type of rock: type of minerals determine how fast a rock weathers Permeable rocks (those with air holes) allow water to seep in
2. Climate: Average weather in an area Both chemical and mechanical weathering occur faster in wet climates. Chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures Hot, wet climate = faster rate of weathering
Complete the Math: Analyzing Data questions on 244 Complete the Section 1 Assessment ?’s 1-3 on page 245