2Question 1Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during a. mitosis b. meiosis I c. meiosis II d. fertilization
3Answer 1Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during b. meiosis I
4Question 2 Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that Sister chromatids separate during anaphase.DNA replicates before the divisionThe daughter cells are diploidHomologous chromosomes synapse
5Answer 2 Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that Sister chromatids separate during anaphase.DNA replicates before the divisionThe daughter cells are diploidHomologous chromosomes synapse
6Question 3 Monohybrid cross Variant for a character Genetic makeup of an individualAn alternative version of a geneA cross between individuals heterozygous for a single character
7Answer 3 Monohybrid cross Variant for a character Genetic makeup of an individualAn alternative version of a geneA cross between individuals heterozygous for a single character
8Question 4 Allele Alternative version of a gene Has no effect on phenotype in a heterozygoteAn organism's appearanceGenetic makeup of an individual
9Answer 4 Allele Alternative version of a gene Has no effect on phenotype in a heterozygoteAn organism's appearanceGenetic makeup of an individual
10Question 5A man with type A blood marries a woman with type B blood. Their child has type O blood. What are the genotypes of these individuals? What other genotypes, and in what frequencies, would you expect in offspring from this marriage?
11Answer 5Man IAi, Woman IBi, child ii Other genotypes for children are ¼ IAIB, ¼ IAi, ¼, IBi
12Question 6In tigers, a recessive allele causes an absence of fur pigmentation (white tiger) and a cross-eyed condition. If 2 phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this locus are mated, what % of their offspring will be cross-eyed? What % of cross-eyed tigers will be white?
13Answer 625% will be cross-eyed; all of the cross-eyed offspring will also be white.
14Question 7A man with hemophilia (recessive, sex-linked) has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait. What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? That a son will be a hemophiliac? If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all 4 will be born with hemophilia?
16Question 8Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color-blind. What is the probability that they will have a color-blind daughter? What is the probability that their 1st son will be color-blind? (Note the different wording of the 2 questions)
17Answer 8¼ for each daughter ( ½ chance that a child will be female x ½ chance of a homozygous recessive genotype); ½ for 1st son.
18Question 9A wild-type fruit fly (heterozygous for gray body color & normal wings) is mated with a black fly with vestigial wings. The offspring have the following phenotypic distribution: wild type, 778; black-vestigial, 758; black normal, 158; gray-vestigial, What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color & wing size?
20Question 10What pattern of inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited disorder of cell metabolism is due to a defective mitochondrial gene?
21Answer 10The disorder would always be inherited from the mother.
22Question 11Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that causes gradual deterioration of the muscles. It is seen almost exclusively in boys born to apparently normal parents & usually results in death in the early teens. Is this disorder caused by a dominant or a recessive allele? Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal? Why?
23Answer 11Recessive, if it were dominant it would affect at least 1 parent of a child with the disorder. The disorder’s inheritance is sex-linked because it is seen only in boys. For a girl to have the disorder, she would have to inherit recessive alleles form both parents. This would be very rare, since males with the recessive allele on their X chromosome die in their early teens.
24Question 12How many chromatids are in a duplicated chromosome?
26Question 13A chicken has 78 chromosomes in its somatic cells. How many chromosomes did the chicken inherit from each parent? How many chromosomes are in each of the chicken’s gametes? How many chromosomes will be in each somatic cell of the chicken’s offspring?
32Question 16What is the original source of all the different alleles of a gene?
33Answer 16Mutations in a gene lead to the different version (alleles) of that gene.
34Question 17A pea plant heterozygous for inflated pods (Ii) is crossed with a plant homozygous for constricted pods (ii). Draw a Punnett square for this cross. Assume pollen come from the ii plant.
35Answer 17i i I Ii Ii Genotype 2:2 Phenotype 2:2 i ii ii
36Question 18An organism with the genotype BbDD is mated to one with the genotype BBDd. Assuming independent assortment of these 2 genes, write the genotypes of all possible offspring from this cross & use the rules of probability to calculate the chance of each genotype occurring.
38Question 19Incomplete dominance & epistasis are both terms that define genetic relationships. What is the most basic distinction between these terms?
39Answer 19Incomplete dominance describes the relationship between 2 alleles of a single gene, whereas epistasis relates to the genetic relationship between 2 genes and the respective alleles of each.
40Question 20Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the relationship between the CB and CW alleles?
41Answer 20The relationship between the alleles is one of incomplete dominance.