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The Atmosphere Chap. 11 Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere.

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Presentation on theme: "The Atmosphere Chap. 11 Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Atmosphere Chap. 11 Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere

2 Atmosphere Basics – Describe the composition of the atmosphere Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere

3 I.Atmospheric composition

4 A.99% nitrogen and oxygen

5 I.Atmospheric composition A.99% nitrogen and oxygen B.Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%

6 I.Atmospheric composition A.99% nitrogen and oxygen B.Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% C.The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%

7 I.Atmospheric composition A.99% nitrogen and oxygen B.Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% C.The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4% D.There are solids in the atmosphere

8 I.Atmospheric composition A.99% nitrogen and oxygen B.Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% C.The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4% D.There are solids in the atmosphere 1.Dust 2.Salt 3.Ice

9 II. Important gases of atmosphere

10 A.Carbon dioxide and water

11 II. Important gases of atmosphere A.Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth. B.Ozone

12 II. Important gases of atmosphere A.Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth. B.Ozone – absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

13 III. Layers of the Atmosphere A.Troposphere

14 III. Layers of the Atmosphere A.Troposphere 1.Closest to Earth. 2.Weather and pollution occur here. 3.Temp. decreases as altitude increases. 4.Ends at about 16 km at tropics, 9 km near poles.

15 III. Layers of the Atmosphere B.Stratosphere

16 III. Layers of the Atmosphere B.Stratosphere 1.Composed mostly of ozone. 2.Is warmed by solar radiation. The higher the altitude the warmer.

17 III. Layers of the Atmosphere C.Mesosphere

18 III. Layers of the Atmosphere C.Mesosphere 1.No ozone. 2.This layer gets cooler as you ascend.

19 III. Layers of the Atmosphere D.Thermosphere

20 III. Layers of the Atmosphere D.Thermosphere 1.Temperature more than 1000º C. 2.There are very few air particles here. 3.Includes ions in a region called the _________.

21 III. Layers of the Atmosphere D.Thermosphere 1.Temperature more than 1000º C. 2.There are very few air particles here. 3.Includes ions in a region called the ionosphere.

22 III. Layers of the Atmosphere E.Exosphere

23 III. Layers of the Atmosphere E.Exosphere 1.Light gases found here (hydrogen and helium). 2.Gradually transitions into space.

24 IV. Energy Transfer

25

26 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) IV. Energy Transfer

27 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) 1.Not all this energy stays on Earth. IV. Energy Transfer

28 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) 1.Not all this energy stays on Earth. 2.Radiation heats ________ objects faster. IV. Energy Transfer

29 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) 1.Not all this energy stays on Earth. 2.Radiation heats dark objects faster. 3.Radiation heats water ______ than land. IV. Energy Transfer

30 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) 1.Not all this energy stays on Earth. 2.Radiation heats dark objects faster. 3.Radiation heats water slower than land. 4.Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves. IV. Energy Transfer

31 A.Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) 1.Not all this energy stays on Earth. 2.Radiation heats dark objects faster. 3.Radiation heats water slower than land. 4.Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves. 5.When solar radiation hits surface of the Earth, the wavelength becomes longer. IV. Energy Transfer

32 B.Conduction – transferring energy by contact. IV. Energy Transfer

33 B.Conduction – transferring energy by contact. 1.Warm particles collide with cooler particles. IV. Energy Transfer

34 B.Conduction – transferring energy by contact. 1.Warm particles collide with cooler particles. 2.This really only heats air near surface. IV. Energy Transfer

35 C.Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. IV. Energy Transfer

36 C.Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. 1.Warm particles have lower density and rise. IV. Energy Transfer

37 C.Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. 1.Warm particles have lower density and rise. 2.Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall. IV. Energy Transfer

38 C.Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. 1.Warm particles have lower density and rise. 2.Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall. 3.This motion creates convection currents. IV. Energy Transfer

39 The End

40 State of the Atmosphere – 11.2 Describe the various properties of the atmosphere and how they interact Explain why atmospheric properties change with changes in altitude Earth’s atmosphere from the ISS (360 km above Earth)

41 I. Temperature

42 A.Temperature is different from heat I. Temperature

43 A.Temperature is different from heat 1.Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance I. Temperature

44 A.Temperature is different from heat 1.Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance 2.Heat describes a transfer of energy I. Temperature

45 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales I. Temperature

46 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales I. Temperature 1.Fahrenheit

47 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales I. Temperature 1.Fahrenheit 2.Celsius

48 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales I. Temperature 1.Fahrenheit 2.Celsius 3.Kelvin

49 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales C.Dew point (condensation temp.) I. Temperature Temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation

50 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales C.Dew point (condensation temp.) I. Temperature 1.This varies depending on water content of the air

51 A.Temperature is different from heat B.Temperature scales C.Dew point (condensation temp.) I. Temperature 1.This varies depending on water content of the air 2.When temperature reaches dew point, condensation can occur

52 D.Vertical temperature changes I. Temperature

53 D.Vertical temperature changes I. Temperature 1.Air cools as elevation increases

54 D.Vertical temperature changes I. Temperature 1.Air cools as elevation increases 2.Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m

55 D.Vertical temperature changes I. Temperature 1.Air cools as elevation increases 2.Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m 3.If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL)

56 D.Vertical temperature changes I. Temperature 1.Air cools as elevation increases 2.Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m 3.If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL) 4.Moist air cools at about 6 ºC / 1000 m

57

58 II. Pressure

59 A.Air pressure and density II. Pressure

60 A.Air pressure and density II. Pressure 1.The air near the Earth’s surface is ______ than air further up

61 A.Air pressure and density II. Pressure 1.The air near the Earth’s surface is denser than air further up 2.The higher you go, the lower the pressure because...

62 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship II. Pressure

63 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship II. Pressure 1.As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ___.

64 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship II. Pressure 1.As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ↑. 2.This relationship is called a direct relationship.

65 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship C.Temperature-Density relationship II. Pressure

66 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship C.Temperature-Density relationship II. Pressure 1.As the temperature ↑, the density goes ___.

67 A.Air pressure and density B.Temperature–Pressure relationship C.Temperature-Density relationship II. Pressure 1.As the temperature ↑, the density goes _↓_. 2.This relationship is called an inverse relationship.

68 III. Temperature Inversions

69 A.The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation. III. Temperature Inversions

70 A.The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation. B.These layers act like a lid, holding in gases below. III. Temperature Inversions

71 IV. Wind

72 A.Results from differences in temperature.

73 IV. Wind A.Results from differences in temperature. B.Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure

74 IV. Wind A.Results from differences in temperature. B.Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure C.Cooler air has a higher density and falls, causing high pressure

75 V. Relative Humidity

76 A.Relative humidity depends on:

77 V. Relative Humidity A.Relative humidity depends on: 1.How much moisture is in the air

78 V. Relative Humidity A.Relative humidity depends on: 1.How much moisture is in the air 2.How much moisture could be in the air Amount of moisture present Amount of moisture possible x 100

79 V. Relative Humidity A.Relative humidity depends on: 1.How much moisture is in the air 2.How much moisture could be in the air 3.Note – warm air holds more moisture.

80 V. Relative Humidity A.Relative humidity depends on: 1.How much moisture is in the air 2.How much moisture could be in the air 3.Note – warm air holds more moisture. B.If the relative humidity is 100% this means the atmosphere is __________.

81 The End

82 Moisture in the Atmosphere Explain how clouds are formed Identify the basic characteristics of different cloud groups Describe the water cycle

83 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds

84 I. Cloud Formation 1.Warm, moist air rises. A.Steps to making clouds

85 I. Cloud Formation 1.Warm, moist air rises. 2.This air expands and cools A.Steps to making clouds

86 I. Cloud Formation 1.Warm, moist air rises. 2.This air expands and cools 3.The air reaches its dew point A.Steps to making clouds

87 I. Cloud Formation 1.Warm, moist air rises. 2.This air expands and cools 3.The air reaches its dew point 4.Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei A.Steps to making clouds Surface on which water droplets can form. Smoke or dust particles can act as condensation nuclei

88 I. Cloud Formation 1.Warm, moist air rises. 2.This air expands and cools 3.The air reaches its dew point 4.Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei 5.A cloud forms A.Steps to making clouds

89 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise

90 I. Cloud Formation 1.Orographic lifting A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise Cloud formation as a result of wind moving air into a mountain. This moves the air upward.

91 I. Cloud Formation 1.Orographic lifting 2.Warm air encounters cold air A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise

92 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability The ability to resist rising

93 I. Cloud Formation 1.A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds. A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability

94 I. Cloud Formation 1.A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds. 2.An unstable atmosphere will have vertical development. Thunderstorms indicate an unstable atmosphere. A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability

95 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability D.Latent heat The heat exchanged during a phase change.

96 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability D.Latent heat 1.Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor.

97 I. Cloud Formation A.Steps to making clouds B.Causes for warm air to rise C.Atmospheric stability D.Latent heat 1.Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor. 2.When the water vapor condenses this heat is released.

98 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds

99 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 1.Cirrus Form high in atmosphere, made of ice crystals, appear as thin, white, feathery clouds

100 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 1.Cirrus 2.Cumulus Flat-based, puffy white clouds with cauliflower appearance on top. Extends vertically several thousand ft.

101 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 1.Cirrus 2.Cumulus 3.Stratus Layered cloud that covers most of the sky. Forms at low altitudes. Often gray. 3 main cloud types

102 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 1.Cirrus 2.Cumulus 3.Stratus 4.Cirrostratus High, thin clouds that give sky a milky white appearance.

103 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 1.Cirrus 2.Cumulus 3.Stratus 4.Cirrostratus 5.Cirrocumulus Delicate clouds forming in bands a ripples. These rare clouds form when cirrus clouds degenerate.

104 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 6.Altostratus Clouds of intermediate height, having blue-gray appearance. Composed of ice crystals and water.

105 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 6.Altostratus 7.Altocumulus Have oval shapes, colored white with gray undersides. May produce mild precipitation.

106 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 6.Altostratus 7.Altocumulus 8.Nimbostatus Often associated with steady precipitation. Can occur in thick, continuous layers.

107 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 6.Altostratus 7.Altocumulus 8.Nimbostatus 9.Stratocumulus Can cover the sky in dark, heavy masses. Form irregular masses close to the ground.

108 I. Cloud Formation E.Types of clouds 6.Altostratus 7.Altocumulus 8.Nimbostatus 9.Stratocumulus 10.Cumulonimbus Puffy, white cloud. Towering clouds that extend upward to heights of 2-5 miles. Cause thunderstorms

109 II. The Water Cycle

110 The End


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