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Chapter 23 Section 2 Handout

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1 Chapter 23 Section 2 Handout
Clouds and Fog

2 1 A collection of small water droplets or ice crystals falling slowly through the air a(n) Cloud

3 2 The crystals or droplets that make up clouds form when condensation or sublimation occurs more quickly than the process of: Evaporation

4 3 A cloud that forms near or on Earth’s surface is: Fog

5 4 What must be available for water vapor to condense and form a cloud?
A solid surface

6 5 The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the troposphere

7 6 What is present in the troposphere that is essential for cloud formation? Tiny suspended particles

8 Dust from Africa's Saharan Desert lingers in high altitudes as it crosses the Atlantic Ocean. This picture was taken from an aircraft northeast of Barbados in Cumulus clouds can be seen poking through the tops of the dust layer, which is seen as a milky white haze.

9 7 Suspended particles that provide a surface for water vapor to condense are called Condensation nuclei

10 8 What happens when water molecules collect on condensation nuclei?
Water droplets form

11 9 What condition must the air be in for clouds to form?
The rate of condensation must be higher than the rate of evaporation.

12 10 The net condensation that forms clouds may be caused by
The cooling of air

13 11 What happens to molecules in rising air? They move farther apart.

14 12 What occurs in adiabatic cooling?
The temperature of an air mass decreases as the air rises.

15 13 What does the adiabatic lapse rate describe?
The rate at which the temperature of rising or sinking air changes

16 14 What is the adiabatic lapse rate of clear air?
-1oC for every 100m that air rises

17 15 What is the average adiabatic lapse rate of cloudy air?
Between -0.5oC and -0.9oC per 100 m that air rises

18 16 Why does cloudy air have a slower rate of cooling than clear air?
Because of the release of latent heat as water condenses.

19 17 What two things happen to the energy from the sun when it reaches Earth’s surface? Earth’s surface absorbs it and then reradiates it as heat

20 18 Describe what happens to air near Earth’s surface.
It absorbs heat, it rises, expands, and then cools

21 19 What is the name of the altitude where net condensation begins to form clouds? Condensation level

22 20 How does the mixing of two bodies of moist air with different temperatures cause clouds to form? The combination causes the temperature of air to change. The combined air may be cooled to below its dew point, which results in clouds.

23 21 What are the results of air being forced upward?
The cooling of the air and cloud formation.

24 22 What kind of terrain may force air upward?
Sloping terrain, such as a mountain range

25 23 How do large clouds associated with storm systems form?
As a mass of cold, dense air enters an area and pushes a less dense mass of warmer air upward.

26 24 What is the name of the process in which the temperature of an air mass decreases as it moves over a cold surface, such as cold ocean or land? Advective cooling

27 25 What happens when an air mass moves over a surface colder than the air is? The cold surface absorbs heat from the air and the air cools.

28 26 What must happen in order for air cooled by adiabatic cooling, mixing, lifting, or advective cooling to form clouds? The air must be cooled to below its dew point.

29 27 What two features are used to classify clouds? Shape and altitude

30 28 Name the three basic forms of clouds. Stratus, cumulus, and cirrus

31 29 What are the three altitude groups of clouds and their heights?
Low clouds (0 to 2,000m) Middle clouds (2,000 to 6,000m) High clouds (above 6,000m)

32 30 Stratus clouds: Clouds with a flat base forming at very low altitudes.

33 31 Altostratus clouds: Middle-altitude clouds that usually produce little precipitation.

34 32 Cumulus clouds: Billowy, low-altitude clouds

35 33 Cumulonimbus clouds: High, dark storm clouds

36 34 Cirrus clouds: Feathery clouds composed of ice crystals.

37 35 Cirrostratus clouds: Clouds that form at a high, transparent veil.

38 36 Clouds that form where a layer of warm, moist air lies above a layer of cool air are called: stratus

39 37 What do the prefix nimbo and the suffix nimbus mean? rain

40 38 How do nimbostartus clouds differ form other stratus clouds?
They can cause heavy precipitation

41 39 What does cumulus mean? “piled” or “heaped”

42 40 What does the characteristic flat base of cumulus clouds represent?
The condensation level

43 41 On what two factors does the height of a cumulus cloud depend?
On the stability of the troposphere and on the amount of moisture in the air.

44 42 In what kind of weather do cumulus clouds grow highest?
Hot, humid days

45 43 What are cumulus clouds at middle latitudes called?
Altocumulus clouds

46 44 Name the low clouds that are a combination of two kinds of clouds.
Stratocumulus clouds

47 45 What do cirrus and cirro mean? “curly”

48 46 At what altitude do cirrus clouds form? At altitudes above 6,000m

49 47 Why does light easily pass through cirrus clouds?
Because they are thin

50 48 What kind of clouds often apperar before a snowfall or rainfall?

51 49 Compare and contrast fog and clouds.
Fog and clouds are bothe the result of the condensation of water vapor in the air, but fog is much nearer Earth’s surface than clouds and forms differently.

52 50 Radiation fog: Forms due to the loss of heat by radiation when Earth cools at night.

53 51 Advection fog: Forms when warm, moist air from above water moves over a cold surface.

54 52 Upslope fog Forms when air rises along land slopes.

55 53 Steam fog: Forms when cool air moves over an inland warm body of water.

56 54 Why is radiation fog thickest in valleys and other low places?
Because dense, cold air sinks to low elevations.

57 55 Why is radiation fog often thick around cities?
Smoke and dust particles act as condensation nuclei.

58 56 Where is advection fog common? Along coasts

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