Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 – Image Makers: Designers (Scenery, Costumes, Makeup, Masks, Wigs, and Hair) Stage-designing should be addressed to [the] eye of the mind. There."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 – Image Makers: Designers (Scenery, Costumes, Makeup, Masks, Wigs, and Hair) Stage-designing should be addressed to [the] eye of the mind. There is an outer eye that observes, and there is an inner eye that sees. —Robert Edmond Jones
Chapter Summary Designers of theatrical sets, costumes, masks, puppets, hair, and wigs realize the production in visual terms. They are visual artists who transform space and materials into an imaginative world for actors engaged in human action.
The Scene Designer Background: –Scenic artist (19 th century): Painted large scenic backdrops –Scene (or set) designer: Rise of realism and naturalistic theatre created demand for more complex sets. Sets required to look like what they represent.
The Scene Designer Early 20 th century innovators: –Adolphe Appia –Edward Gordon Craig Reinterpreted function of set and set design: –Create mood –Open stage up for movement –Unify visual ideas Moved beyond illusion of stage realism: –Stage can be expressive Ming Cho Lee’s Design for K2 Courtesy Arena Stage
Scene Design as Visual Storytelling Designer as detective: –Uncovers visual clues that reveal inner life of play Approaches: –Begins with script analysis: Literary (theme, mood, setting, etc.) Practical (entrances, exits, properties, etc.) –Creates sketches, models –Works with director to decide on look, details –Designer’s plans given to production manager, technical director, shop foreman
Scene Designer Spotlight Adolphe Appia (1862-1928): –Considered unity to be the basic goal of theatrical production –Disliked contradiction of three-dimensional actor and flat backdrop –Used ramps, steps, platforms to give depth –Role of lighting to fuse visual elements into whole
The Costume Designer Costume: –All garments and accessories, wigs, makeup, and masks –Tells us about characters: Social position, economic status, occupation, etc. Relationship of characters to each other –Tells us about play: Sets mood, establishes setting Bruce Goldstein/Courtesy Guthrie Theatre Patricia Zipprodt’s Costumes for Molière’s Don Juan
The Costume Designer In past, costumes were handled by actor, manager Costume designers emerged in last 80 years: –New stagecraft required detail-oriented specialists. Typical responsibilities of costume designer: –Costume research –Sketching –Preparing costume plates –Assessing color choices –Choosing fabric
The Costume Designer Large costume houses: –Broadway Costume Rental, Inc. (Queens, N.Y.) –Western Costume Company (North Hollywood) –Warner Studios (Burbank, CA) –Malabar Ltd. (Toronto) Rent and make costumes on demand Costume Collection and Odds Costume Rental & Fur (New York City): –Rent to nonprofit organizations
The Costume Designer: Process Design conferences: –Forum for working out overall production plan Costume construction: –Director approves designs. –Designer arranges for construction, purchase, or rental of costumes. –Director and designer examine costumes on actors (dress parade). Dress rehearsal: –Costumes, makeup, and masks are worn onstage with full scenery and lights.
Makeup Enhances the actor and completes the costume In theatre, compensates for audience distance Helps reveal character: –Age –Background –Ethnicity –Heath –Personality –Environment
Makeup Ancient Greeks used white-lead makeup. Modern makeup: –Foundation (prevents “washed out” look under lights) –Cake makeup (less greasy than oil-based) –Color shadings applied with pencils, brushes –Synthetic hair, glue, solvents, wax, hair whiteners
Makeup Straight makeup: –Highlights an actor’s features and coloring –Distinctness and visibility Character (illustrative) makeup: –Transforms actor’s features to reveal age or attitude –Noses, wrinkles, eyelashes, jawlines, eye pouches, eyebrows, teeth, hair, beards, etc. Fantasy makeup: –Responsibility of designer (as opposed to actor)
Masks Ancient masks: –Originally thought to have supernatural powers –Enlarged actor’s facial features –Expressed basic emotions (especially Greek masks) Modern masks: –Masked actor creates different presence onstage. –Mask must be comfortable, strong, light, and molded to the contours of the actor’s face.
Wigs and Hair Design: Process Meeting between wig designer and costume designer: –Meeting with actor –Measurements taken Discussion of color and practical considerations (e.g., hats, changes to hair during play) Construction: –Base constructed of lace –Ventilated (strands of hair knotted in place)
Core Concepts All good theatrical design enhances the actor’s presence and supports the director’s interpretation of that world— developing, visualizing, illuminating, and enriching it.