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Jill Fisher Science Seminar Dr. Heyen, Advisor Determining the Chemical Make-up of the Flavoring of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles.

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Presentation on theme: "Jill Fisher Science Seminar Dr. Heyen, Advisor Determining the Chemical Make-up of the Flavoring of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jill Fisher Science Seminar Dr. Heyen, Advisor Determining the Chemical Make-up of the Flavoring of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles

2 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Purpose of Experiment, Part 1 To compare chemicals of proposed Coca-Cola recipe with chemicals found from Coca-Cola product using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

3 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Methods 1.Extract organic compounds with ethyl ether, compare using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS), run spectrum using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer 2.Dilute with methanol, compare using GCMS 3.Dilute with water, run spectrum with UV spectrophotometer

4 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles GCMS Coca-Cola samples dissolved in methanol or extracted with ethyl ether were heated and detected for comparison with chemicals in a database.

5 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles

6 UV Spectrophotometry Extracted and diluted Coca- Cola samples were ran in a spectrum of 190 nm – 320 nm Diluted sample was tested with certain wavelengths for absorbency/%transmittance

7 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Target Chemicals IngredientChemicalStructureWavelength (nm) Citric Acid--- VanillaVanillin279, 309 Orange OilLimonene220, 250 Cinnamon OilEugenol--- Cinnamaldehyde291 Caryophyllene280 Linalool243 Estragole230, 280 Lemon Oil--- Coriander OilLinaloolSee above243 Pinene210 Nutmeg OilMyristicin--- Elemicin--- PineneSee above210 Sabinene--- Terpinene265 Safrole236, 285 Neroli OilNerol

8 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Results from GCMS The GCMS analysis shows the presence of several peaks, thus several chemicals No exact matches, but possible derivatives of target chemicals Example: VanillinVanilglycolic acid

9 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles

10 Vanillin derivative Myristicin/Safrole derivative

11 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Results from Spectrophotometer Spectrum gave peaks for cinnamaldehyde and linalool Several targeted wavelengths formed one peak Photometer gave individual absorbencies for entered wavelengths Wavelength (nm)ABS/%TTarget /136vanillin /41.3☺ cinnamaldehyde /15.2safrole /4.0 estragole/caryophyllene /3.2vanillin /0.5terpinene /0.1limonene /0.1☺linalool /0.3safrole /0.5estragole /1.5limonene /15.0pinene /34.0nerol /42.0nerol /100nerol

12 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Target Chemicals IngredientChemicalStructureWavelength (nm) Citric Acid--- VanillaVanillin279, 309 Orange OilLimonene220, 250 Cinnamon OilEugenol--- Cinnamaldehyde291 Caryophyllene280 Linalool243 Estragole230, 280 Lemon Oil--- Coriander OilLinaloolSee above243 Pinene210 Nutmeg OilMyristicin--- Elemicin--- PineneSee above210 Sabinene--- Terpinene265 Safrole236, 285 Neroli OilNerol

13 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Conclusions The secret flavoring of Coca-Cola does include citric acid, vanilla, and cinnamon oil. Coriander and nutmeg oil have a high possibility of being included. Recipe may have changed over the decades.

14 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Purpose of Experiment, Part 2 To test for the presence of acetaldehyde in water contained in plastic bottles under different environments for an extended period of time. Polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) heat Acetaldehyde

15 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Methods Extract organic compounds with ethyl ether React aldehyde with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine Extract organic compounds with Solid Phase Extraction tubes Identify with GCMS 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine

16 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) 2,4-DNPH reagent is made with phosphoric acid, ethyl ether, and 2,4-DNPH The DNPH will react with aldehydes to give 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazone

17 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Water is pulled through column with suction filtration. Chemicals on media are eluted with methanol

18 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Sample Environments Water stored for 36 days in Greenhouse, Organic Lab, and Microbiology Refrigerator Temperatures of water at collection: –Greenhouse: 29.5°C –Organic Lab: 20.5°C –Refrigerator: 6.0°C

19 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Target Chemicals 2,4-dinitrolphenylhydrazone 2,4-dinitrolphenylhydrazine Ethyl ether Acetaldehyde Methanol DNPH ReactionSolid Phase Extraction

20 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Results from GC Samples mixed with DNPH reagent did not give any noticeable results Samples from SPE only showed excess chemicals from greenhouse container

21 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Greenhouse sample with DNPH Organic lab sample with DNPH Fridge sample with DNPH

22 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Greenhouse sample from SPE Organic lab sample from SPE Fridge sample from SPE

23 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Conclusion The DNPH did not show the presence of acetaldehyde. The SPE did show a presence of a larger compound, perhaps from the PETE or from the silica gel matrix.

24 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Acknowledgements and Thanks Thanks to Dr. Heyen for being my advisor and helping with the equipment and procedure. Thanks to Diane Soldan and Caleb Mason for chugging Coca-Cola.

25 The Chemical Make-up of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic Bottles Sources 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Acetaldehyde. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Cinnamon. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Coca-Cola. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Coriander. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Neroli. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Nutmeg. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Orange Oil. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Polyethylene Terephthalate. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. The Coca-Cola Recipe. Soda Museum. The Safety of Convenience-Size Plastic Beverage Bottles. Plastics Info. Van Aardt, Marleen. “Effect of Shelf-Life and Light Exposure on Acetaldehyde Concentration in Milk Packaged in HDPE and PETE Bottles.” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Vanilla. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Weast, Robert C, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 57 th Ed. Cleveland: CRC Press, Williamson, Kenneth. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments. 3 rd Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Zubrick, James W. The Organic Chem Lab Survival Manual. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc


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