Presentation on theme: "Jill Fisher Science Seminar Dr. Heyen, Advisor"— Presentation transcript:
1Jill Fisher Science Seminar Dr. Heyen, Advisor Determining the Chemical Make-up of the Flavoring of Coca-Cola and the Degradation of Plastic BottlesJill FisherScience SeminarDr. Heyen, Advisor
2Purpose of Experiment, Part 1 To compare chemicals of proposed Coca-Cola recipe with chemicals found from Coca-Cola product using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectrophotometry.
3MethodsExtract organic compounds with ethyl ether, compare using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS), run spectrum using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometerDilute with methanol, compare using GCMSDilute with water, run spectrum with UV spectrophotometer
4GCMSCoca-Cola samples dissolved in methanol or extracted with ethyl ether were heated and detected for comparison with chemicals in a database.
11Results from Spectrophotometer Wavelength (nm)ABS/%TTarget309-0.03/136vanillin2910.40/41.3☺cinnamaldehyde2850.82/15.2safrole2801.40/4.0estragole/caryophyllene2791.48/3.22652.33/0.5terpinene2503.01/0.1limonene2433.10/0.1☺linalool2362.60/0.32302.30/0.5estragole2201.80/1.52100.92/15.0pinene1940.40/34.0nerol1920.33/42.01900.10/100Spectrum gave peaks for cinnamaldehyde and linaloolSeveral targeted wavelengths formed one peakPhotometer gave individual absorbencies for entered wavelengths
13ConclusionsThe secret flavoring of Coca-Cola does include citric acid, vanilla, and cinnamon oil.Coriander and nutmeg oil have a high possibility of being included.Recipe may have changed over the decades.
14Purpose of Experiment, Part 2 To test for the presence of acetaldehyde in water contained in plastic bottles under different environments for an extended period of time.heatPolyethylene terephthalate (PETE)Acetaldehyde
152,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine MethodsExtract organic compounds with ethyl etherReact aldehyde with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazineExtract organic compounds withSolid Phase Extraction tubesIdentify with GCMS2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
162,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) 2,4-DNPH reagent is made with phosphoric acid, ethyl ether, and2,4-DNPHThe DNPH will react with aldehydes to give 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone
17Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Water is pulled through column with suction filtration.Chemicals on media are eluted with methanol
18Sample EnvironmentsWater stored for 36 days in Greenhouse, Organic Lab, and Microbiology RefrigeratorTemperatures of water at collection:Greenhouse: 29.5°COrganic Lab: 20.5°CRefrigerator: 6.0°C
20Results from GCSamples mixed with DNPH reagent did not give any noticeable resultsSamples from SPE only showed excess chemicals from greenhouse container
21Greenhouse sample with DNPH Organic lab sample with DNPHFridge sample with DNPH
22Greenhouse sample from SPE Organic lab sample from SPE Fridge sample from SPE
23Conclusion The DNPH did not show the presence of acetaldehyde. The SPE did show a presence of a larger compound, perhaps from the PETE or from the silica gel matrix.
24Acknowledgements and Thanks Thanks to Dr. Heyen for being my advisor and helping with the equipment and procedure.Thanks to Diane Soldan and Caleb Mason for chugging Coca-Cola.
25Sources 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. Acetaldehyde. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Cinnamon. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Coca-Cola. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Coriander. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Neroli. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Nutmeg. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Orange Oil. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Polyethylene Terephthalate. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.The Coca-Cola Recipe. Soda Museum.The Safety of Convenience-Size Plastic Beverage Bottles. Plastics Info.Van Aardt, Marleen. “Effect of Shelf-Life and Light Exposure on Acetaldehyde Concentration in Milk Packaged in HDPE and PETE Bottles.” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2000.Vanilla. Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia.Weast, Robert C, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 57th Ed. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1976.Williamson, Kenneth. Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments. 3rd Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.Zubrick, James W. The Organic Chem Lab Survival Manual. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc