Presentation on theme: "Analysis of contaminants of emerging concerns in wastewater and the Maryland coastal bays Charniece C. Huff 1, Rehab Abass 2, Ali Ishaque 2 1 Department."— Presentation transcript:
Analysis of contaminants of emerging concerns in wastewater and the Maryland coastal bays Charniece C. Huff 1, Rehab Abass 2, Ali Ishaque 2 1 Department of Environmental Science, Spelman Colllege, Atlanta, GA 30314 2 Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CONCLUSIONS RESULTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MATERIALS AND METHODS We wish to thank Drs. May and Chen for the Coastal bay samples and GC-MS analysis of the sample. This study was funded by UMES REU. Thanks to NSF for the Funds. Special thanks goes to Dr. Chigbu, Dr. Ali Ishaque and Rehab Abass. CECs are known to affect reproduction in aquatic organisms since they are known endocrine disruptors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been identified to disrupt the endocrine system of humans, wildlife, and fish. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have the capability to interfere with natural hormone cycles and the physiological status in wildlife and humans. Through the use of “anti-bacterial” soap, detergents, shampoo, coatings of pill capsules, cleaning agents, toys, food wrap, canned food, and contaminated drinking water humans are exposed to EDCs. Wildlife are exposed to these chemicals through wastewater (sewage), sludge, and solid waste. This contamination from one higher life form to another creates a perilous cycle. The long-term effects of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can be detrimental and irreversible. In humans endocrine disrupting chemicals cause hormone disturbance, low sperm concentration, motility, infertility, and reproductive abnormality. EDCs affects on wildlife such as aquatic biota include(s) but are not limited to feminization of male fish, hermaphroditism, and decreased levels of sperm. SAMPLE COLLECTION Treated and untreated wastewater samples were collected from the Somerset County Sanitary District Inc. Princess Anne Wastewater Treatment plant and from specific locations within the Maryland coastal bay. Samples were collected in groups of four 4L pre-cleaned glass bottles. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION The eluates were evaporated to dryness, under a gentle stream of nitrogen 40 C. Derivatization was performed on the dried residues using bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. DISCUSSION Out of the twenty selected target compounds only phthalates and caffeine were found. Phthalates presence was ubiquitous in every sample collected and analyzed More contaminants of emerging concern were found in the untreated wastewater samples in comparison to CECs found in untreated wastewater samples. The reason being the wastewater plant takes out most of the pollution during treatment. We found very few contaminants in the coastal bay samples. The reason being that the level of detection could have been to low for the GC/MS test to detect. Phthalates and caffeine show human impact on the coastal bay. FUTURE WORK Wider range of sample collection from the coastal bay Access more standards for CECs and EDCs Qualitative analysis and comparison of larger data set Determine concentration levels of CECs in the coastal bay Wastewater samples were stored in the dark at 4 degrees Celsius. Extraction was performed within 48h of sample arrival. Figure.3. shows a chromatography of a coastal bay water sample. The peaks that were able to be identified include diisooctyl phthalate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl butane, and a few fatty acids. Figure. 2. shows a chromatography of a treated wastewater sample. The peaks that were able to be identified include diethyl phthalate and a few fatty acids. SAMPLE PROCESSING Figure.1. shows a chromatography of an untreated wastewater sample. The peaks that was able to be identified included caffeine, benzyl butyl phthalate, and a myriad of fatty acids. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY Contaminant of Emerging Concerns (CECs) consist of myriads of compounds including nanomaterials, natural hormones, industrial compounds, personal care products, pharmaceutical, food additives, caffeine, sweeteners, transformation products, inorganic compounds and agricultural chemicals. CECs are known to affect reproduction in aquatic organisms since they are known endocrine disruptors (EDCs). Important EDCs that have shown up in investigations were chosen as the target compounds for this study. Water samples were collected from three different sites. Eight samples were collected from the Somerset County wastewater treatment plant and four samples from the coastal bay. Solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used to extract target compounds from water samples using C18 cartridges. Derivatization with bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide was performed on the extracts followed by Gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Out of the twenty selected target compounds only phthalates and caffeine were found. Phthalates presence was ubiquitous in every sample collected and analyzed. SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION Solid-phase extraction technique was used in the isolation of target compounds using C18 cartridges. Water samples were filtered through glass fiber filter (GF/F) pore size 0.7 micro liters at 100ml at a time. The cartridges were conditioned by 2 x 3.5ml of methanol. The samples were passed through the cartridge at a flow rate of 10ml per minute. Caffeine and phthalates presence were detected in the coastal bay water samples. These contaminants of emerging concern are known endocrine disrupting chemicals. They may have ecological impactions on the coastal bay ecological systems. The presence of these chemicals indicate the impact of land use on the coastal bay. GC_MS Detection Sample extracts were analyzed using Gas chromatography equiped with Mass spectrometer detector.