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Presentation Segment from “Bi-/Multi-Racial Adolescent Males At Risk For Suicidality Pierre Tremblay & Richard Ramsay CPS (Centre for Suicide Prevention)

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Segment from “Bi-/Multi-Racial Adolescent Males At Risk For Suicidality Pierre Tremblay & Richard Ramsay CPS (Centre for Suicide Prevention)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Segment from “Bi-/Multi-Racial Adolescent Males At Risk For Suicidality Pierre Tremblay & Richard Ramsay CPS (Centre for Suicide Prevention) Research Symposium Calgary, Alberta April 3, 2003 Note: Best Viewed in Explorer Browser Socially Constructed Binaries & Youth Suicidality

2 Racial and Ethnic Identity Models and Their Application: Counseling Biracial Individuals. Aldarondo, Felito (2001) Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(3): "Although the biracial population is growing, there remains a lack of attention to the needs of this diverse group. The field of counselling is no exception. Compared to the literature for monoracial individuals, there is a dearth of empirical study and conceptual writing examining racial and ethnic identity development among biracial people." (241) The Bi-/Multi-Racial Reality A Dearth of Research

3 Brunsma DL, Rockquemore KA (2001) Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1(3): "Although it is generally considered the most comprehensive collection of research on the Biracial population, the largest sample used in any of the studies included in the anthology consisted of 31 respondents. Most of the studies in this text generalize broadly from anecdotal, biographical, or small interview studies with fewer than 20 respondents." (231) Re Book: The Multiracial Experience: Racial Borders as the New Frontier Roots, Maria PP, Ed. (1996) "The results indicate that Biracial individuals do make choices within circumscribed cultural contexts and these understandings are influenced not by skin color, but by an actor's assumption of how others perceive his or her appearance." (Abstract: 225) Re: Their Study of 177 Black/White Biracial Respondents The New Color Complex: Appearances and Biracial Identity

4 Multiracial and Multiethnic Students: How They Must Belong. Wardle, Francis (2001) Multicultural Perspectives, 2(4): "Multiracial and multiethnic students are placed in a no-man's land regarding ethnic and racial self-esteem at school. Although many school books and classes include contributions by all the diverse groups of people that make up the rich history of this nation, there is no evidence of the existence and contributions of people of mixed racial and ethnic heritage. Furthermore, with the official inclusion of single-race students groups, celebration of holidays that highlight the contributions of traditional groups, and the insistence by most school officials that multiracial and multiethnic students select a single race on official forms, these children are invisible." (12) The Bi/Multi-Racial Reality A “No Man’s Land” Situation

5 1.Residential Schools for Aboriginal Children 2.Being Homosexual: Illegal & Mental Disorder 3.Then Ok for Homosexuals to Exist (as “lesser than”), but…. 4.Bisexual Individuals Should NOT Exist! 5.Males Should also NOT be Like Females! “No Man’s Land” Binary Situations, The “You Should NOT Exist” Factor & Suicidality

6 “[The book is] about the anxiety many people experience when they confront the indeterminacy of others whose existence in the borderland between dichotomies – of race, class, nationality, profession, sanity – challenges the binary rules of role laid down by almost every society, insisting that you're either one thing or another, black or white, native or alien, man or woman – and how, by doing so, they actually create culture. ” Binaries & Boundaries: Power & The “Lesser Ones” Boundary Violators ? Race: White / Black, Of Color Sex: Male / Female Sexual Orientation: Hetero / Homo Gender: Masculine /Feminine “US” / “THEM”: The “Lesser Than…” Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety Marjorie Garber, 1992

7 Words Used in Titles of Paper & Article Words Used for Sexuality / Sex / Gender Multiracial / Biracial Multiethnic / Biethnic Bisexual Multisexualities InterracialIntersexual Crossing Over Cross Colors Across Color Lines Crossing the Date Line Crossing the Color Line Cross-Racial Identification Cross-Cultural… Cross-Dressing Crossing - Passing: The Closet – All Categories Transsexual, Transvestite Transgender, Trannies Gender Nonconformity or Cross-Gender Identification Bi/Multi-Racial Individuals: The Infamous Binaries Also Apply to Sexuality, Sex & Gender Words Always Re-Inscribe & Reinforce Binary Perceptions Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Transcultural Psychiatry

8 Higher Suicidality For The “Lesser Ones” Highest Suicidality in “No Man’s Land” The Sexual Orientation Binary Heterosexual / Homosexual Bisexual = “No Man’s Land” “Gay,” for Adolescents Now Means “Being a Loser” in All Ways The Gender Binary Females = The Lesser Ones” Males Like Females = Losers! Femininity in Males = “No Man’s Land

9 Scores Males & Females, N = 5824: 78 Homosexual, 71 Bisexual Ages: 20-24, (Current) : Ideation / Behavior (Past 5 Years) Statistical Significance Across Categories, p <=.001 Australia Mental Health Survey: Jorm AF, et al. (2002) Bisexual Adults = Sexual Orientation Binary Boundary Violators

10 Massachusetts: N = 8,141Vermont: N = 14,623 Adolescents Reporting Sex Partners of Opposite, Same, or Both Sex(es) Caveat: Males / Females, Attempt Incidence Difference Greater for Males Incidence Percent Suicide Attempt Incidence & Cocaine Use Care Massachusetts & Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 1995 & 1997 (Robin, Leah et al., 2002): Bisexual Adolescents = Sexual Orientation Binary Boundary Violators

11 Incidence Percent 2,881 MSM Males: Stratigraphic Random Sample, U.S. Cities 3%84% 9% 4% Percent of Study Sample Suicidality: MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) Paul, Jay P et al., 2002

12 Childhood Self-Rating on a “0 to 6” Femininity to Masculinity Scale 573 Predominantly Homosexual Male Adults (Bell & Weinberg, 1978) Incidence Percent Attempted Suicide Incidence to Age 20 Feminine: n = 55Masculine: n = 244n = 274n = 282 Homosexual Male Suicidality & Gender Nonconformity Feminine Homosexual Males = Gender Boundary Violators   Predominantly Homosexual   Heterosexual

13 Incidence Percent Undifferentiated n = 31n = 77n = 28 Lifetime Attempted Suicide Incidence BEM: Femininity / Masculinity Categories & Suicidality 136 Gay And Bisexual Male Youth: Age Years Remafedi, Farrow & Deisher (1991)

14 Higher Suicidality For The “Lesser Ones” Highest Suicidality in “No Man’s Land” The Historically Accepted Ones in North America = White “Lesser Ones” = Of Color = Two Groups One ‘Race’ / Ethnicity & Multi-’Racial’/Ethnic Multi-’Racial’/Ethnic = “No Man’s Land

15 Of Color One Race Multi-Race Incidence Percent Attempted Suicide Incidence for Adolescent Males by Race Groupings The Multi-Race “No Man’s Land”/ “You Should NOT Exist” Factor White One Race N = 10,997n = 9,094n = 1,536n = 367 Note: Non-Responders to ‘Race’/Ethnicity Question are removed. N Oregon Youth Risk Behavior Survey


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