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Presentation on theme: "- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc SOCIAL WORK IN CANADA An Introduction Third Edition Chapter 14: Social Work and Sexual and Gender Diversity

2 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity  Historical Context  The Rise of Community Activism  Theoretical Perspectives  Social Work Counselling  Counselling Issues  Implications for LGBTTQ-Positive Practice

3 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Historical Context There are two major developments that have shaped our thinking about gender and sexuality:  Sexology – the field of study that invented the identities of heterosexual and homosexual  Community activism – a movement that subsequently evolved to signify a shared history of oppression and marginalization

4 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Historical Context Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840–1902)  Pioneer in creating categories of normal and abnormal  Heterosexual begins to represent normality Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895)  Fought to decriminalize sodomy  Homosexuality is inborn and natural

5 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Historical Context Magnus Hirschfeld (1868–1935)  Founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee  Fought against paragraph 175 of the German criminal code that made male homosexuality a crime  First person to systematically describe and work with transsexuals  Challenged notion of sexual polarity in favour of sexual pluralism

6 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Historical Context Alfred Kinsey (1894–1956)  Kinsey Report, 1948, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, surveyed a variety of people about their sexual habits  Showed that people’s sexual behaviours combined so- called perverse behaviours with those considered normal  Type of research was groundbreaking in that it suggested everyday sexual behaviour often transgressed laws, public opinion, and social norms

7 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. The Rise of Community Activism The Stonewall Rebellion On June 27 and 28, 1969, a series of riots erupted in response to a police raid on a New York City gay bar, the Stonewall Inn. It represented a significant collective uprising by the gay and lesbian community against state oppression.

8 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. The Rise of Community Activism Bill C-150 The legal terms used to describe gay sex were decriminalized if committed in private between two consenting adults over the age of 21. (1969) “There is no place for the State in the bedrooms of the nation.” Justice Minister Pierre Trudeau

9 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. The Rise of Community Activism Queer Activism Efforts and actions towards social change by LGBTTQ communities; more confrontational than gay and lesbian rights movements.

10 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Theoretical Perspectives Biological Determinism Theory that an individual’s personality, behaviour, and attitude is determined by genes, minimizing the role of the environment.

11 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Theoretical Perspectives Social Constructionism Theory that sexualities are constructed by our social and cultural context and experience.

12 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Theoretical Perspectives Queer Theory Maintains that sexual behaviours, identities, and categories are social constructs.

13 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Social Work Counselling There are two extremes in social work counselling with lesbians, bisexuals, transgendered or transsexual persons, and gay men: 1.Social workers exaggerate the difficulties of living in a heterosexist society 2.Workers assume that sexual orientation and gender identity make no difference to a person’s experience

14 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Social Work Counselling Coming Out of the Closet Refers to the act of publicly revealing your sexual identity. Those who keep their LGBTTQ identity secret are referred to as living “inside the closet.” Therefore, when one reveals one’s identity, it is said that he or she is “coming out of the closet.”

15 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Counselling Issues For social workers who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or transsexual there are issues to consider:  Can be a role model  Might experience challenges dealing with people who are hostile to LGBTTQ communities  Pressure may be added if not working in a queer-positive practice  Be careful of your own stereotypes and beliefs

16 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Counselling Issues There are some counselling issues that may arise that are specific to members of transgendered and transsexual communities.

17 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Counseling Issues The following are useful points to consider:  People do not always see themselves as fitting within a gender norm  Be supportive of how people understand their gender  There are no “cures” for transsexualism  Gender transitioning, hormonal therapy, or sex reassignment surgery are some of the options  Gender transitions can cause anxiety and uncertainty

18 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Counselling Issues Social Work with Persons who are Homophobic Generally, individual feelings of homophobia are rooted in three different areas:  Religion  Insecurity in gender roles  Negative past experience with someone who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual

19 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Implications for LGBTTQ-Positive Practice  Don’t make assumptions  Remain supportive and open-minded  People cannot change their sexual orientation, and it is unethical to work with someone to do so  Members of the LGBTTQ community may prefer to work with a counsellor who is also a member of the community

20 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Websites  Equality for Gays and Lesbians Everywhere (EGALE)  Gender Education and Advocacy  PFLAG  International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission

21 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Questions for Discussion In what ways do you see a recognition of gender diversity in your social work program?

22 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Questions for Discussion What are some tangible ways that you could support people belonging to LGBTTQ groups in your school? Field placement? Community?

23 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Questions for Discussion What specific challenges does homophobia pose for two-spirited persons?

24 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Questions for Discussion Why do you think Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, is the first to extend human rights protection to transgendered persons?

25 Chapter 14: Social Work & Sexual & Gender Diversity Social Work In Canada Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. Questions for Discussion Why are some LGBTTQ youth at risk for forced participation in the sex trade? What are some implications of globalization for the sex trade?


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