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Digital Television & Home Theater Audio for Video  Basic Acoustics  How & Why We Hear  Movie & Home Theater Sound-System Configurations, Including Surround.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Television & Home Theater Audio for Video  Basic Acoustics  How & Why We Hear  Movie & Home Theater Sound-System Configurations, Including Surround."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Television & Home Theater Audio for Video  Basic Acoustics  How & Why We Hear  Movie & Home Theater Sound-System Configurations, Including Surround Sound  Digital Audio Formats: the Good, the Bad, and the Sublime.

2 Sound Basics: What Is Sound? Sound = Traveling Waves Of Air Pressure Air Pressure Wave: Localized, Temporary, Sequential Increase + Decrease in Air Pressure Around Normal (15 lbs./sq. inch) Air Pressure Wave: Localized, Temporary, Sequential Increase + Decrease in Air Pressure Around Normal (15 lbs./sq. inch) Each Wave Must Have Both A Positive (pressure increase) And Negative (pressure decrease) Part Each Wave Must Have Both A Positive (pressure increase) And Negative (pressure decrease) Part – Overall Air Pressure Cannot Change Think Of Air Molecules Temporarily Bunching Up In Some Places and Spreading Out In Others. The Bunching Up Spreads Like Falling Dominos Think Of Air Molecules Temporarily Bunching Up In Some Places and Spreading Out In Others. The Bunching Up Spreads Like Falling Dominos

3 From William Vennard: Singing The Mechanism & The Technique

4 Sound Basics: Frequency A Sequential Increase & Decrease In Pressure Is Called A Cycle. A Sequential Increase & Decrease In Pressure Is Called A Cycle. –Think of It As A Single Wavelet. A Cycle Takes A Finite Time To Complete A Cycle Takes A Finite Time To Complete –Pressure Variation Goes , or Sustained Sounds With Repetitive Identical Cycles Have An Associated Fundamental Frequency, F Sustained Sounds With Repetitive Identical Cycles Have An Associated Fundamental Frequency, F –F = The Number Of Cycles Occurring Within A Second Of Time –Expressed in Hz. = Cycles/Second

5 Sound Basics: Auditory Perception When Sustained Sounds With Repetitive Air Pressure Waves Are Perceived By The Ear, They Give The Sensations Of Pitch & Loudness When Sustained Sounds With Repetitive Air Pressure Waves Are Perceived By The Ear, They Give The Sensations Of Pitch & Loudness –More Cycles In A Given Span Of Time = Higher Pitched Sound –The Greater The Increase & Decrease In Air Pressure Variation Within Each Cycle = The Louder The Sound

6 Sound Basics: Hearing Range Pitch Is Perceived Logarithmically In Octaves Pitch Is Perceived Logarithmically In Octaves –One Octave Increase = Doubling The Frequency Human Hearing Covers 10 Octaves, From 20 Cycles/Second to 20,000 Cycles/Second Human Hearing Covers 10 Octaves, From 20 Cycles/Second to 20,000 Cycles/Second –Everyday Sounds Are Usually 40 Cycles/Second to 12,000 Cycles/Second –The Critical Band For Speech Recognition is 500 Cycles/Second to 2,000 Cycles/Second

7 Sound Basics: Wavelength Air Pressure Waves Travel ~ 1,130 ft./sec. Air Pressure Waves Travel ~ 1,130 ft./sec. –A Cycle Of Air Pressure Variation That Takes A Finite Time To Complete Therefore Spreads Out Across a Finite Distance = It’s Wavelength Sustained Sound With Repetitive Identical Cycles Having Fundamental Frequency F, Have Wavelength L Derived By: Sustained Sound With Repetitive Identical Cycles Having Fundamental Frequency F, Have Wavelength L Derived By: L Ft./Cycle = 1.13 Ft./Millisecond / F Cycles/Second –Note That The Higher The Frequency (& Pitch), The shorter The Wavelength

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9 Resonation & Perception Several Air Pressure Waves Simultaneously Traveling Through The Same Space Will Add Together Linearly. Several Air Pressure Waves Simultaneously Traveling Through The Same Space Will Add Together Linearly. So Will Traveling Air Pressure Waves When Trapped Between Two Physical Parallel Boundaries. So Will Traveling Air Pressure Waves When Trapped Between Two Physical Parallel Boundaries. –At Each Boundary Some Sound Passes Through But Most Bounces In The Reverse Direction –The Waves Will Continue To Bounce Back And Forth Between Boundaries Until All The Sound Has Leaked Out. Sustained Sounds Will Continually Feed New Air Pressure Waves To Bounce And Add Together Between The Boundaries Sustained Sounds Will Continually Feed New Air Pressure Waves To Bounce And Add Together Between The Boundaries

10 Sound(Air Pressure)- Waves Trapped Between Parallel Walls Of A Resonator Sound Leakage

11 Resonation & Perception For Most Frequencies, Multiple Bouncing Pressure Waves Will: For Most Frequencies, Multiple Bouncing Pressure Waves Will: –Momentarily Reinforce Each Other Some Places –Momentarily Oppose Each Other At Other Places But With No Consistent Pattern.

12 However, At A Few Frequencies Bouncing Pressure Waves Will Constantly Reinforce Each Other And Always At The Same Places However, At A Few Frequencies Bouncing Pressure Waves Will Constantly Reinforce Each Other And Always At The Same Places –These Places Of Constantly Reinforcing Pressure Waves Are Called “Standing Waves”. –As Standing Waves Build In Intensity With Sustained Sound, More Sound “Leaks” Through The Boundaries To The Outside Until Equilibrium Is Reached. Resonation & Perception

13 1 3 2 Long-Term Average Standing Waves

14 Which Frequencies Will Produce Standing Waves? Which Frequencies Will Produce Standing Waves? –Only Those For Which The Distance Between Boundaries Is An Integer Multiple Of The Frequency’s Wavelength – I. E. When 1, 2, 3, 4,... Wavelengths Will Perfectly Fit Between The Boundaries With No Pieces Left Over. Resonation & Perception

15 Parallel Physical Boundaries Therefore Act As A Resonator & Filter. Put Sustained Broadband Noise In (Which Contains Many Frequencies): Parallel Physical Boundaries Therefore Act As A Resonator & Filter. Put Sustained Broadband Noise In (Which Contains Many Frequencies): –Most Frequencies Will Be Attenuated. –A Few Will Be Strengthened and Projected. –The Frequencies That Are Strongly Resonated Reveal The Dimensions Of The Resonator.

16 Real-World Hollow Objects Are 3- Dimensional & Have Many Non-Parallel Boundaries Real-World Hollow Objects Are 3- Dimensional & Have Many Non-Parallel Boundaries –Standing Waves Occur At Many More Frequencies And Vary In Strength. –Putting In Sustained Broadband Noise Will Result In Highly Unique And Complex Spectrum Of Resonated Frequencies: A Spectral Fingerprint Of The Physical Object! –Strong Survival Value In Discriminating How Strongly Each Frequency (Out Of A Broad Range Of Frequencies) Is Being Reinforced By An Object. Resonation & Perception

17 Our Ears Are Spectrum Analysers Our Ears Are Spectrum Analysers –Inner Ears Compare Strengths Of Different Frequencies Coming From A Single Object. –We Can Associate Sounds We Hear With Objects We See, Even When We Can’t See Them! –Our Ears Report To Our Brains, Which Is Not Aware Of Separate Frequencies, But Instead Perceives Timbre - An Overall Sound Quality.

18 From William Vennard: Singing The Mechanism & The Technique

19 From Ralph Appleman: The Science Of Vocal Pedagogy

20 The Purpose of Hearing Scout Out Our Environment (for Predators and Food) Beyond Our Line Of Sight. –What is out there?! –Is It Moving Closer Or Further Away?! –Where Is It?!

21 How We Hear What Is Out There? What Is Out There? –Spectral analysis with either/both ears. (Previously explained)

22 How We Hear What Is Out There? What Is Out There? –Spectral analysis with either/both ears. (Previously explained.) Is It Moving Closer Or Further Away? Is It Moving Closer Or Further Away? –Changes in volume with either/both ears. (Inverse Square Law.)

23 How We Hear Where Is It ? Where Is It ? –Bianural Hearing: Comparing the same sound as heard by two physically separate, distinctly shaped ears: Relative Loudness Relative Loudness Time Of Arrival Time Of Arrival Head-Related Transfer Function Head-Related Transfer Function

24 How We Hear Where Is It ? Where Is It ? –Two Separate Perceptions of Environmental Sound Localization - I can point to the direction of the sound (e.g a lion’s roar) Localization - I can point to the direction of the sound (e.g a lion’s roar) Envelopment - I am inside the sound (e.g. rain & thunder) Envelopment - I am inside the sound (e.g. rain & thunder)

25 How We Localize Sound

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30 What’s The Difference? Head-Related Transfer Function

31 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio To Simulate Nature It Must Reproduce To Simulate Nature It Must Reproduce –Realistic Complex Acoustic Spectrum Accurate Full-Range Speakers Accurate Full-Range Speakers High-End Electronics High-End Electronics –Realistic Volume Levels/Volume Changes Sufficient Power and Speaker Sensitivity Sufficient Power and Speaker Sensitivity Accurate, Clean Micro and Macro Dynamics Accurate, Clean Micro and Macro Dynamics –Realistic Binaural Cues via Multiple Speakers: Relative Loudness Relative Loudness Time Of Arrival Time Of Arrival Head-Related Transfer Function Head-Related Transfer Function

32 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Monophonic Sound: All sound sources sonically image at the speaker.

33 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio 2-Channel Stereophonic Sound: Sound sources sonically phantom-image between and behind the speakers. 2 Discrete Channels Can have multiple simultaneous sonic phantom images. Can smoothly pan a sonic phantom image.

34 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Quadraphonic Sound Sound sources sonically phantom-image between the front speakers, between the back speakers, but not between the side speakers. 4 -> 2 Matrixed Channels and barely feasible Discrete

35 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Matrixed 4 Channels into 2 2 Channels – Lt & Rt provide: 1.Left Channel = Lt 2.Right Channel = Rt 3.Channel 3 = Lt + Rt 4.Channel 4 = Lt - Rt Just 3 db Channel Isolation due to Inter-channel Bleeding. Steering Logic Can Isolate Channels Further, But for Only One Phantom Image at a Time

36 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Dolby Stereo (Theaters) Thanks, Star Wars Episode 4 Left/Center/Right Speakers Behind Screen + Single Surround Channel into Many Speakers for Envelopment 4 -> 2 Matrixed Channels. Delayed, Frequency-Limited Surround Channel

37 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Dolby Pro Logic (Home) Left/Center/Right w. Center Above/Below the Display + Single Surround Channel into 2 Dipolar Speakers for Envelopment 4 -> 2 Matrixed Channels. Delayed, Frequency-Limited Surround Channel

38 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Digital 5.1 in Theaters Left/Center/Right Speakers Behind Screen + Left Sur/Right Sur + Subwoofer Discrete 5 Full-Range Channels + Discrete Subwoofer

39 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Digital 5.1 – Home Configuration Left/Center/Right w. Center Above/Below the Display + Left Sur/Right Sur + Subwoofer Discrete 5 Full-Range Channels + Discrete Subwoofer -30 o 0 o +30 o -120 o +120 o

40 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Digital 6.1 in Theaters Thanks, Star Wars Episode 1 Left/Center/Right Behind Screen + Left Sur/Back Sur/ Right Sur + Subwoofer 5 Channels Discrete + Subwoofer + Back Channel Matrixed

41 Hi Fidelity/Home Theater Audio Digital 7.1 – Home Configuration Left/Center/Right w. Center Above/Below the Display + Left Sur/Left Back/Right Back/Right Sur + Sub Discrete 7 Full-Range Channels + Discrete Subwoofer -30 o 0 o +30 o -150 o +150 o -90 o +90 o

42 Digital Television

43 It’s Coming February 17, Do you know where your programs are?

44 Digital Television What Is It? – A Totally New Television System

45 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system?

46 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system? – 1930’s Technology

47 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system? – 1930’s Technology – Black & White

48 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system? – 1930’s Technology – Black & White – Monophonic Sound

49 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system? – 1930’s Technology – Black & White – Monophonic Sound – Maximum Screen Size: 19 inches

50 Digital Television What was wrong with the old Analog system? – 1930’s Technology – Black & White – Monophonic Sound – Maximum Screen Size: 19 inches – Kluged Retrofits: Still not close to photographic and larger-than-life quality of movies.

51 Digital Television Why Now? Actually it started in the 1980s

52 Digital Television Why Now? Actually it started in the 1980s. – Japanese Developed Analogue High Definition TV & Began Marketing It in the US.

53 Digital Television Why Now? Actually it started in the 1980s. – Japanese Developed Analogue High Definition TV & Began Marketing It in the US. – Congress Feared Further Technology & Patent Drain

54 Digital Television Why Now? Actually it started in the 1980s. Why Now? Actually it started in the 1980s. – Congress asked American companies to develop a more/better American System Offered no government funding but instead enticed with opportunities for patent royalties. Offered no government funding but instead enticed with opportunities for patent royalties. Would conduct “fly-off” of all submitted systems. Would conduct “fly-off” of all submitted systems. 4 teams of companies entered the competition. 4 teams of companies entered the competition.

55 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – Broadcasters insisted on being included; i.e. the high definition system would have to fit within current licensed stations (6 MHz Bandwidth/Channel). The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution. The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution.

56 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – Broadcasters insisted on being included; i.e. the high definition system would have to fit within current licensed stations (6 MHz Bandwidth/Channel). The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution. The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution. – FCC conducted not one, but three flyoffs over 10 years and found no system satisfactory.

57 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – Broadcasters insisted on being included; i.e. the high definition system would have to fit within current licensed stations (6 MHz Bandwidth/Channel). The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution. The Japanese system had required higher bandwidth cable and satellite distribution. – FCC conducted not one, but three flyoffs over 10 years and found no system satisfactory. – During the third flyoff, one team proposed a digital system which showed promise.

58 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – The four competing teams of companies and research institutions were about to drop out of the development: over 10 years of IR&D with no return in sight.

59 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – The four competing teams of companies and research institutions were about to drop out of the development: over 10 years of IR&D with no return in sight. – The FCC suggested that the four teams agree to share patent royalties and combine efforts to use the best of all proposed systems.

60 Digital Television Why Now? Then Why Did It Take So Long To Develop? – The four competing teams of companies and research institutions were about to drop out of the development: over 10 years of IR&D with no return in sight. – The FCC suggested that the four teams agree to share patent royalties and combine efforts to use the best of all proposed systems – This Grand Alliance completed development of the current “ATSC” system in the mid 1990s and the FCC adopted it in 1997.

61 Digital Television What Is Better About Our New “ATSC” Television System?

62 Digital Television What Is Better About Our New “ATSC” Television System? – Needs Fewer Channels

63 Digital Television What Is Better About Our New “ATSC” Television System? – Needs Fewer Channels – Versatile Content

64 Digital Television What Is Better About Our New “ATSC” Television System? – Needs Fewer Channels – Versatile Content – HDTV Options: 1. Photographic Picture 2. Wide-Screen Like Movies 3. Discrete Surround Sound

65 Digital Television 1. Picture Quality Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD

66 Digital Television 1. Picture Quality Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors

67 Digital Television 1. Picture Quality Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors Wider Color Gamut - Many More Hues Wider Color Gamut - Many More Hues

68 Digital Television 1. Picture Quality Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Much Higher Resolution: 1 or 2 million pixels versus 230,000 for analogue broadcast or 345,000 for DVD Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors Wider Color Gamut - More Saturated Colors Wider Color Gamut - Many More Hues Wider Color Gamut - Many More Hues Better Color Spatial Resolution - Patterned Versus Pastel Shirts Better Color Spatial Resolution - Patterned Versus Pastel Shirts

69 Digital Television 2. Wide-Screen Aspect Ratio **** Resolution 4 Hor. X 4 Vert. = 16 Pixels Aspect Ratio 4:4 or 1.0 to 1.0

70 Digital Television 2. “Academy” Aspect Ratio **** Resolution 4 Hor. X 3 Vert. = 12 Pixels Aspect Ratio 4:3 or 1.33:1.0 Analogue TV Has Theoretical 640 Hor. X 480 Vert. = Aspect Ratio 1.33:1.0

71 Digital Television 2. Wide Aspect Ratio – Typical Movie Aspect Ratios :1.0 (Edison),1.66:1.0, 1.85:1.0, 2.05:1.0, 2.35:1.0 – How can HDTV accommodate all these aspect ratios? Take the geometric mean :1.0 – Actual Pixel Counts 1280 X 720 = ~1 Megapixel; Refreshed 60 Times/Sec X 720 = ~1 Megapixel; Refreshed 60 Times/Sec X 1080 = ~2 Megapixels; Refreshed 30 Times/Sec X 1080 = ~2 Megapixels; Refreshed 30 Times/Sec.

72 Digital Television Dolby Digital Surround – Left Front, Center Front, Right Front, Left Surround, Right Surround, Subwoofer – Also Carries Regular Stereo For TV Speakers

73 Digital Television What Happens To My Old TVs When Analogue TV Is Turned Off on Feb 17, 2009? Will need a converter box Will need a converter box – Satellite receiver – Cable Box – Over-The-Air Box Picture will still be standard definition on old TV, and will be letterboxed to accommodate wide-screen programs (or else 1. the sides of the picture will be cut off or 2. everyone will look really thin!) Picture will still be standard definition on old TV, and will be letterboxed to accommodate wide-screen programs (or else 1. the sides of the picture will be cut off or 2. everyone will look really thin!)

74 Digital Television The Coupon Progam Nielson estimates 14.3 million US households rely on over-the-air TV. That’s 12% of the nation’s households. Nielson estimates 14.3 million US households rely on over-the-air TV. That’s 12% of the nation’s households. Each household can apply for up to 2 $40. coupons to spend on ATSC digital tuner boxes for analog TVs. Each household can apply for up to 2 $40. coupons to spend on ATSC digital tuner boxes for analog TVs. Congress has allotted $1.5 B for the program to be administered via the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. = 33.5 Million Coupons. Congress has allotted $1.5 B for the program to be administered via the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. = 33.5 Million Coupons. Boxes sell for $50. - $ major retailers have been approved to sell them. Boxes sell for $50. - $ major retailers have been approved to sell them. Boxes only have Composite or Coax connector, no S-Video or Component – only output standard definition. Boxes only have Composite or Coax connector, no S-Video or Component – only output standard definition. ~ 13 million coupons distributed so far. ~ 13 million coupons distributed so far.

75 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Must have: – ATSC Tuner

76 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Must have: – ATSC Tuner (Over The Air) – QAM Tuner (Basic Cable)

77 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Must have: – ATSC Tuner (Over The Air) – QAM Tuner (Basic Cable) – Pixel Count At Least 1280 X 720 (“720p”)

78 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Must have: – ATSC Tuner (Over The Air) – QAM Tuner (Basic Cable) – Pixel Count At Least 1280 X 720 (“720p”) – Diagonal Size = ~ 1/2 Viewing Distance

79 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs)

80 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs) – Cable Card

81 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs) – Cable Card – Pixel Count: 1920 X 1080 (“1080I” or “1080P”)

82 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs) – Cable Card – Pixel Count: 1920 X 1080 (“1080I” or “1080P”) – 120 Hz Refresh Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder

83 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs) – Cable Card – Pixel Count: 1920 X 1080 (“1080I” or “1080P”) – 120 Hz Refresh Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder – 3D Ready

84 Digital Television What do I need to know to buy a new HDTV? Nice to have: – HDMI Hookup (Still Has Bugs) – Cable Card – Pixel Count: 1920 X 1080 (“1080I” or “1080P”) – 120 Hz Refresh Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder Eliminates Image Persistence & Judder – 3D Ready – More Color Ready Deep Color (10-14 bits/Primary) Deep Color (10-14 bits/Primary) xvYCC Extended Color (LED, Laser Illumination) xvYCC Extended Color (LED, Laser Illumination)

85 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms)

86 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural?

87 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural? – Shadow Detail

88 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural? – Shadow Detail – Instantaneous Contrast

89 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural? – Shadow Detail – Instantaneous Contrast – Motion Persistence?

90 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural? – Shadow Detail – Instantaneous Contrast – Motion Persistence? – Contouring?

91 Digital Television What Do I Need To Know To Buy A New TV? How Do I Judge Picture Performance? – Brightness (Red Herring - only relevant for very bright rooms) – Color Accuracy – Do they look natural? – Shadow Detail – Instantaneous Contrast – Motion Persistence? – Contouring? – Off Axis Viewing (Depends on seating). Brightness Diminishes Brightness Diminishes Colors Change Colors Change

92 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Format Should I Buy? – Rear Projection - Best Value even though disappearing. New models are no deeper than Flat Panels on their stands. New models are no deeper than Flat Panels on their stands. Still best for screen sizes ≥ 60” Still best for screen sizes ≥ 60” – Front Projection - Best to Suspend Disbelief – Flat Panel – Lifestyle Choice, Lifestyle Cost. Vary Greatly in Picture Quality.

93 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Technology Should I Buy? Alphabet Soup, But You Need to Know: – 3LCD Front Projectors and Rear Projection Sets Screen Door Effect - Acceptable Pixel Fill Screen Door Effect - Acceptable Pixel Fill Mediocre Contrast - but gradually improving Mediocre Contrast - but gradually improving Mediocre Blacks - but gradually improving Mediocre Blacks - but gradually improving Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Good Brightness Good Brightness Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Cheapest Projectors and Projection Sets Cheapest Projectors and Projection Sets

94 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Technology Should I Buy? Alphabet Soup, But You Need to Know: – DLP Front Projectors and Rear Projection Sets Color Wheel Can Cause Fringing - hence multispeed. Color Wheel Can Cause Fringing - hence multispeed. Extended Color Gamut with Optional 6 Primary Colors Extended Color Gamut with Optional 6 Primary Colors Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Good Contrast - and keeps improving Good Contrast - and keeps improving Good Blacks - and keeps improving Good Blacks - and keeps improving Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Good Brightness Good Brightness Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Wide Range Of Price Performance. Wide Range Of Price Performance. – 3 DLP the Best & Costliest

95 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Technology Should I Buy? Alphabet Soup, But You Need to Know: – LCOS (D-ILA & SXRD) Front Projectors and Rear Projection Sets Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Good To Great Contrast Good To Great Contrast – Some D-ILA is Best in Industry Good To Great Blacks Good To Great Blacks Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Mediocre Off Axis Viewing (Rear Projection) Good Brightness Good Brightness Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Brightness Ages Some, but Restores w. New Bulb Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Bulb Life Hours. Cost $ $400. Price Competitive with DLP Price Competitive with DLP

96 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Technology Should I Buy? Alphabet Soup, But You Need to Know: – Plasma Flat Panels Digital Picture Resolution - some 1920 X 1080, many 1346 X 768, Beware 1024 X 768 (43 inch) Digital Picture Resolution - some 1920 X 1080, many 1346 X 768, Beware 1024 X 768 (43 inch) Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Screen Door Effect - Very Good Pixel Fill Good To Great Contrast - Rivals CRT Good To Great Contrast - Rivals CRT Good to Great Blacks - Rivals CRT Good to Great Blacks - Rivals CRT Superb Off Axis Viewing - Rivals CRT Superb Off Axis Viewing - Rivals CRT Good Brightness Good Brightness Rich Colors Rich Colors 40,000 Hour Predicted Life But Will Lose Brightness w. Age 40,000 Hour Predicted Life But Will Lose Brightness w. Age Susceptible to Burn-In Susceptible to Burn-In Expensive, But Cheaper Than Flat Panel LCD for Large Sizes Expensive, But Cheaper Than Flat Panel LCD for Large Sizes

97 Digital Television What Type Of HDTV Technology Should I Buy? Alphabet Soup, But You Need to Know: – LCD Flat Panels Digital Picture Resolution - Most 1920 X 1080, Some 1280 X 720, Beware 1080 X 1080, Many SD (Smaller) Digital Picture Resolution - Most 1920 X 1080, Some 1280 X 720, Beware 1080 X 1080, Many SD (Smaller) Brightest Display Technology Brightest Display Technology Least Refined Display Technology - Digital Grain Least Refined Display Technology - Digital Grain Screen Door Effect - Acceptable Pixel Fill Screen Door Effect - Acceptable Pixel Fill Mediocre Contrast - But Improving w. Each Generation Mediocre Contrast - But Improving w. Each Generation Mediocre Blacks - But Improving w. Each Generation Mediocre Blacks - But Improving w. Each Generation Poor Off Axis Viewing - Brightness and Color Shifts Poor Off Axis Viewing - Brightness and Color Shifts Wide Range of Picture Quality & Prices, but … Wide Range of Picture Quality & Prices, but … Getting Ever Cheaper To Produce - Rivals CRT in Cost for Small Screen Sizes and Is Sexier Getting Ever Cheaper To Produce - Rivals CRT in Cost for Small Screen Sizes and Is Sexier Will Eventually Rule The Mass Market Will Eventually Rule The Mass Market

98 Digital Television What Happens When I Get The Set Home? Programming Sources: – Over-The-Air Free: All local stations now have digital channels. Needs a good antenna. During set-up your set will scan for them and store. During set-up your set will scan for them and store.

99 Digital Television What Happens When I Get The Set Home? Programming Sources: – Over-The-Air Free: All local stations now have digital channels. Needs a good antenna. During set-up your set will scan for them and store. During set-up your set will scan for them and store. – Time-Warner Cable: Some local digital stations available but not NBC or WB. + Optional HD Cable Network “Tier” + HD Premium Channels Available

100 Digital Television What Happens When I Get The Set Home? Programming Sources: – Over-The-Air Free: All local stations now have digital channels. Needs a good antenna. During set-up your set will scan for them and store. During set-up your set will scan for them and store. – Time-Warner Cable: Some local digital stations available but not NBC or WB. + Optional HD Cable Network “Tier” + HD Premium Channels Available – Satellite: No local digital channels available yet. DirectTV: More HD Every Week As Cable Networks Convert. Rumored Reformatted to 1440 X 1080 DirectTV: More HD Every Week As Cable Networks Convert. Rumored Reformatted to 1440 X 1080 Dish Network: More HD Every Week As Cable Networks Convert. Better Picture Quality. Start of 1080P PPV Dish Network: More HD Every Week As Cable Networks Convert. Better Picture Quality. Start of 1080P PPV

101 Digital Television “Cable” Networks In HD – Already Obsolete! – Basic Networks: A&EAnimal PlanetDiscoveryESPN ESPN2Food NetworkGolf ChannelHGTV National Geog.Science ChannelTBSTLC TNTNFL – Premium Networks: Big 10 Cinemax HBOShowtime Starz Big 10 Cinemax HBOShowtime Starz – HD Only Networks: HDNet HDNet MoviesHD News HD Theater Universal HD – Voom HD Only Networks (Dish Network Satellite Only): AnimaniaEquatorFamily RoomFilm Fest GalleryGameplayKung FuMHD MonstersRaveRushTreasure UltraWorld CinemaWorldSport

102 Digital Television Collecting HD Programs – Digital VHS Use D-VHS or S-VHS Tape Use D-VHS or S-VHS Tape 2 1/2 Hrs HD/Tape - 3 hours of TV Minus Commercials 2 1/2 Hrs HD/Tape - 3 hours of TV Minus Commercials Simple Operation via Firewire from DVR Simple Operation via Firewire from DVR Also Records/Plays Regular Tapes Also Records/Plays Regular Tapes HD Movies Available on D-Theater Tapes for 5 Years HD Movies Available on D-Theater Tapes for 5 Years – Blu-Ray: Different Dimensions From DVD Different Dimensions From DVD Require New Factories To Produce Require New Factories To Produce Most Discs So Far Are Single Layer Most Discs So Far Are Single Layer 25 Gbytes/Layer 25 Gbytes/Layer Starting Price: $400. Starting Price: $400. Disc Starting Price: $25. Most ≥$35. Disc Starting Price: $25. Most ≥$35. Full Spec Players Just Now Becoming Available Full Spec Players Just Now Becoming Available

103 Digital Television Collecting HD Programs – HD-DVD: Format War Loser Discs Have Same Structure As DVDs Discs Have Same Structure As DVDs Discs & Players Are Cheaper To Produce Discs & Players Are Cheaper To Produce Discs Can Be Produced In Regular DVD Factories Discs Can Be Produced In Regular DVD Factories Most Discs Are Dual Layer Most Discs Are Dual Layer 15 Gbytes/Layer (but most X 2) 15 Gbytes/Layer (but most X 2) More Interaction Capability; Fully Ramped Up from Start More Interaction Capability; Fully Ramped Up from Start Consistent, Intuitive Disc Menu System Consistent, Intuitive Disc Menu System Some Dual Discs: SD & HD on Same Disc Some Dual Discs: SD & HD on Same Disc Player Prices Start $150. Player Prices Start $150.


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