3 “When I read about the training I thought “I already do that”… “When I read about the training I thought “I already do that”….when I went to the training I thought “I already do this”….when I got back and did it how I was trained I thought “I have been doing this”….it wasn’t until I got this incredibly different response from the offenders that I realized I had never done this before.”-Federal Probation Officer Anna Pakiela, Personal Communication 2009.EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
4 Ohio Community Corrections Data EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
6 Inter Heart Study Risk factors for heart attack Identified 9 factors that predicted 90% of all heart attacksFirst 2 predicted 2/3rds
7 Risk Factors For Heart Attack CholesterolCurrent smokingDiabetesHypertensionAbdominal obesityPsychosocialFailure to eat vegetables and fruits dailyFailure to exerciseNo alcohol consumption
8 Comparison of HA & Crime Risk Factors CholesterolCurrent smokingDiabetesHypertensionAbdominal obesityPsychosocialFailure to eat fruits & vegFailure to exerciseNo alcohol consumptionAttitudesPeersPersonalityEmploymentFamilySubstance abuseHousing, financesPersonal distressLower socio-economic status
9 How Does What We Target & How We Target Make A Difference Plenty of current research indicating that when we incorporate core correctional practices we see reductions in recidivismUsing core correctional practices ensures we are targeting relevant criminogenic needs & using a general model to change behavior
10 Skeem et al, 2007, Trotter, 1996 & 1999, Paparozzi & Gendreau, 2005, and others Quality and nature of relationshipAndrews & Dowden, 1999 and othersWhat we talk aboutTaxman 2008Moving beyond the check inBonta et al., 2008, Dowden & Andrews, 2004Core Correctional Practices
11 The Balanced ApproachPaparozi and Gendreau. An Intensive Supervision Program that Worked: Service Delivery, Professional Orientation, and Organizational Supportiveness. The Prison Journal, Vol. 85 No. 4, December 2005.
12 Core Correctional Practices Dowden and Andrews, 2004
13 How well we do both What to target How to target Relationship Skills Behavioral AnalysisRACECHART-session structureHow to targetBridging skillsIntervention skillsHow well we do bothFidelity of implementationPeer coachingRelationship Skills
14 Relationship SkillsWhat type of relationship yields the highest benefitHow to coach and mentor your clients & peersImportant factors associated with effective correctional programsEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
15 Relationship “a connection, association, or involvement” Professional and work relatedFriendly, but not friendsEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
16 DiscussionThink about an effective coach you’ve had in your life (for sports, work, etc.)What qualities did that person have?What made him/her a good coach?EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
17 Relationship SkillsSpiegler and Guevremont note that the relationship “…is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of treatment.”Must also target criminogenic needsEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
18 Relationship Skills Skills: Collaboration, autonomy, self-efficacy EmpathyActive listeningGiving feedbackRole ClarificationStructured skill building and graduated practiceEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
19 Role Clarification Key skill in working with involuntary clients Helps the client understand what to expect and what is expected of themShould be covered at the beginning of supervisionEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
20 Role Clarification Explain the supervision process Explain the various roles and responsibilities of a supervision officerWhat are we (officer/offender) here for?What are we hoping to get out of this?What is required?What can be negotiated?Confidentiality of informationEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
21 Steps of Role Clarification Identify the agency’s goals for the supervision processAsk the client to identify what he hopes to accomplish during the supervision processIdentify what you, as a representative of the agency, hope to accomplishDefine the supervision processIdentify and discuss expectations of confidentiality22.214.171.124.5.
22 CHART-session structure What to targetBehavioral AnalysisRACECHART-session structure
23 Risk AssessmentImportant for driving case planning, management, and risk reductionThe results direct:Whom to target (high risk)What to target (criminogenic needs)EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
24 Sample assessment scores Criminal History=MODERATEEducation, Employment, and Financial situation=LOWFamily and social support=LOWNeighborhood Problems= LOWSubstance Use= HIGHPeer Associations= HIGHCriminal Attitude and behavior problems= MODERATE
25 To be effective at reducing an offender’s risk we have to understand what puts them at risk. EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
26 Behavioral Analysis “How do I know what to target?” Identifies high risk people, places, things, thoughtsUncovers specific targets for discussionGiven as homeworkUsed throughout supervisionEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
27 Behavioral AnalysisProcess where offender reports the offense chain for the last ten times he/she was in trouble or could have been in troubleAllows you and offender to look for patterns in behavior.These patterns tell us what to extinguish, identify situations to avoid, skills to develop, and what to reinforceThis process makes supervision proactive instead of reactive!
28 Behavioral Analysis When (day of week and time) Who were you with (before/during)?Where were you?What were you thinking/feeling (before/during)?What did you do?What were you thinking/feeling after?
29 Sample BA Weekday Afternoon Guys at Community service downtown When (day of week and time)Who were you with before/during?Where were you?What were you thinking/feeling before/during?What did you do?What were you thinking/feeling after?WeekdayAfternoonGuys at Community servicedowntownI got time to stop by my house and see my grandma and get something to eat.Stopped by the house for a few minutes then went backI shouldn’t have done that.That was stupidI could’ve gotten caughtSunday morningAndreDa’shonPrisonI’m gonna play this football ticket and make some moneyI played it and got caught with it afterwardsThat’s a petty ruleIt’s not about the ticket.AnnoyedWeekday morningSelfMy houseI could get a good chunk of money for my mom’s TVI took the TV to the pawn shopI need help.GuiltSample BA
30 RACERelapse prevention model used to help understand how to respond to their high risk people, places, things.Along with BA used early in supervisionImplementing the steps of RACE will be an ongoing processHelps the client learn to make responsible choicesEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
31 R A C E RACE RECOGNIZE AVOID COPE EVALUATE High risk influencers that tempt the offenderAVOIDBy taking steps away from situationsCOPEIn situations where the high risk influencer cannot be avoidedEVALUATEEvaluate progress, make changes to the planRACE
32 RACE Recognize Avoid Cope Evaluate Learn to recognize high-risk situationsAvoidCan you avoid? Plan to avoidCopeIf you cannot avoid, plan to manageEvaluateHow can you better handle the scenario? What did you do well?
33 RACE Audio example EPICS-II Effective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
34 Avoidance WorksheetCan you realistically avoid this high risk person, place, thing, trigger (PPTT)?List all of the situations you might encounter this PPTT?If you avoid this situation what will you do instead?What specific steps will you take to avoid this situationWhat problems do you anticipate in avoiding this situation?What skills will you need to successfully implement the plan?After completing avoidance worksheet proceed to coping-contingency plan
35 Avoidance Worksheet - R=Stress Can you realistically avoid this high risk person, place, thing, trigger (PPTT)?List all of the situations you might encounter this PPTT?If you avoid this situation what will you do instead?What specific steps will you take to avoid this situationWhat problems do you anticipate in avoiding this situation?What skills will you need to successfully implement the plan?Conflict with girlfriend (screaming at each other)Separate from each other when tension is present.Calmly discuss issue.Talk to her when we are both calm.Create a plan that we both agree on.Difficulty learning a new way to communicate.Going back to old habits.Communication skills3 StepTime out technique
36 Coping Worksheet-contingency Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where unforeseen high-risk situations occurList some potential situations where the avoidance plan may fail:What specific steps will you take to remove yourself with minimal risk of relapse or other problemsWhat potential problems can you anticipate by implementing your plan?How will you handle these problems?What skills will you need to successfully implement the plan?
37 Coping Worksheet-primary plan Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where the high risk PPTT CANNOT be avoided.When encountering this high risk PPTT my risk reaction is:_________________List specific circumstances surrounding this PPTT that increase the likelihood of triggering your risk reactionWhat specific steps will you take to effectively cope with these circumstancesWhat potential problems can you anticipate by implementing your planHow will you handle these problemsWhat skills will you need to successfully implement the plan
38 Coping Worksheet-primary plan Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where the high risk PPTT CANNOT be avoided.When encountering this high risk PPTT my risk reaction is: Anger/ ViolenceList specific circumstances surrounding this PPTT that increase the likelihood of triggering your risk reactionWhat specific steps will you take to effectively cope with these circumstancesWhat potential problems can you anticipate by implementing your planHow will you handle these problemsWhat skills will you need to successfully implement the planShe starts accusing me of being with other womenExplain to her that I don’t want to argueTell her we need to separate until we are both calm.Leave the house.She’ll continue to scream at me.She won’t let me leave.She’ll start hitting and kicking me.Take a deep breathDon’t raise my voice.Explain that I will call her in an hour.3-stepSkill step “responding to anger”Skill step “responding to an accusation”
39 Structure of an interaction Purposeful and IntentionalFocuses on addressing and changing target behaviorsBe prepared for meetingEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
40 Questions to ask yourself What is the goal of the interaction?What should I target?What behaviors do I want to reinforce?What behaviors do I want to disapprove of?What are his/her high risk P,P,T,Ts?What was the client’s homework?
42 Structured Skill building Session 2- How to targetBridging SkillsIntervention SkillsStructured Skill building
43 Bridging Skills EPICS-II Effective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
44 Bridging SkillsServe as a “bridge” between relationship and behavioral changeDevelopment and maintenance of a relationshipBasis of behavioral changeEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
45 Bridging Skills Changing offender behavior Effective use of ReinforcementEffective Use of disapprovalEffective Use of Authority
46 Changing Offender Behavior Punishment and ReinforcementBuilding blocks of operant conditioningBehavior is developed and maintained through a series of consequencesPunishment stops a behavior/ Reinforcement strengthens and teaches a new behaviorEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
47 Effective use of reinforcement EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
48 Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Involves the application of a stimulus to increase behavior.Example: A client reports getting a job and receives verbal praise.Involves the removal of a stimulus to increase behavior.Example: A halfway house client has clean U.A.s for an entire month and is taken off restriction
49 Types of Reinforcers Social reinforcers Reinforcing activities Praise, acknowledgement, attention, approval, etc.Advantages: ease of administration, limitless supply, can use immediately, naturally reinforcingSocial reinforcersWatching television, playing sports, listening to music, playing computer games, and talking on the telephoneReinforcing activitiesCertificates, bus tokens, food, etc.Hard to do in criminal justice systemToken items and material objects
50 Skill Steps for Effective Reinforcement Tell the client what she did that you like and why it is importantAsk the client, in her own words and thoughts, what are the short and long term benefits of continuing to use the behaviorContract with the client to use the skill/behavior, you are discussing, again in the future1.2.3.
52 Effective use of punishment and disapproval EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
53 Punishment (Positive) punishment (Negative) punishment Involves the application of a stimulus to decrease behavior.Example: An offender submits a positive drug screen and is required to report weekly.Involves the removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior.Example: An offender fails to report and has the privilege of picking report day and time removed.
54 Skill Steps for Effective Disapproval Identify the inappropriate behavior and tell the client, in an objective manner, that you disapprove of what was said or done.Ask the client to explore the short-and long-term consequences of continuing to engage in that behavior.Ask the client to identify and discuss pro-social alternatives that could be used in place of the unacceptable behavior.Contract with the client to use the pro-social alternative in the future.126.96.36.199.
55 Effective use of disapproval IF YOU ARE ADMINISTERING A PUNISHMENT FOLLOW STEPS 5 & 6Tell the client what the consequence will be“Because you chose to ____, then your consequence will be ______”Deliver the consequence5.6.
57 Effective use of Authority EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
58 Effective use of Authority Using authority in an effective mannerNature of our jobs: getting people to do what they don’t want to doGives the client control in making decisionsFirm, but fair approach
59 Skills steps for effective use of authority Identify a situation where the client is in a decision-making positionPresent the available choices and the attendant consequencesDO NOT USE DOOMSDAY ULTIMATUMSAt the next available opportunity, follow-up by determining if objectives were met (which choice did they make?)Reward or praise compliance (if applicable)188.8.131.52.
60 Intervention Skills EPICS-II Effective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
61 Intervention Skills Cognitive Model Applying and reviewing the cognitive modelProblem-solving skillsTime outEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
62 Cognitive Model Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Evidence based treatmentYields the strongest, most consistent benefit in reducing recidivismEmphasizes the important role that thoughts and feelings have in determining behaviorThe Cognitive Model:A pictorial representation of external events, thoughts, and the resulting behavior.EPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
63 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Everyone has thoughts before acting, we just aren’t always tuned into them
64 Cognitive Model Benefits of teaching the Cognitive Model Increases awareness of high risk thoughts that typically lead to troubleHelps the client see and understand the connection between thinking and behaviorStarts the process of restructuring antisocial thoughts and replacing them with alternative, pro-social thoughts
65 “Thinking Controls Behavior” The Cognitive ModelEXTERNALINTERNALBEHAVIOR“Thinking Controls Behavior”
66 Cognitive Model worksheet EXTERNALINTERNALTHOUGHTSBEHAVIORREPLACEMENTNEW BEHAVIORCONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCES
67 Sample worksheet INTERNAL EXTERNAL BEHAVIOR THOUGHTS CONSEQUENCES REPLACEMENTNEW BEHAVIORFriends that I used with in the past called me to see if I wanted to go out with themThis could be a lot of fun. I have been working hard. I deserve a break. I won’t use I’ll just watch and laugh. I might meet a guy.Go hang out. Might use.I will feel like hell tomorrow. I will feel guilty. I will worry about having to drop. I could get arrested. I might use. I might meet a guy but he’ll be a loser. I could go back to prison.Told friends I can’t do that anymore. Stayed at home with my son. Felt a big relief after I hung up phone.CONSEQUENCESGet arrested. Test positive. Get revoked.CONSEQUENCESFelt proud and like “I can make it”. Spent time with son. Stayed out of trouble
68 Why does training fail? EPICS-II Effective Practices In Correctional Settings-II
69 Integrating Training into the Workplace Joyce and Showers (2002): Training consisting of..Theory and DiscussionDemonstration and ModelingPractice and Feedback++Resulted in…
75 2 main reasons: The training was inadequate. Failure in the transfer of learning back to the workplace.
76 Why?Newly learned behavior is fragile and needs to be supported in the face of reactions from clientsInitial reaction may be positive or negativeNegative reactions may cause the behavior to desistStress or discomfort may cause the behavior to desistDifficult to extinguish old habitsPerception that new behavior will be too time consuming or difficult to masterOrganizational characteristics do not support new behavior
77 EPICS-IIAssists in building the infrastructure to support implementationProvides the keys for effective implementationTraining for “peer coaches”Support staff through early stages of implementation until new behavior is embeddedPrepare staff for potential reactionsWork one on one with staff with master the skillsDirect observation & providing feedback
78 Keys to Effective Implementation Start small, train staffEnsure program integrity through consistent coaching and careful monitoringTape interactionsAs supports are in place continue to train staffPick one target and target it well!
79 Closing & QuestionsAssessment, Relapse Prevention and Session StructureRelationship & Coaching SkillsBridging SkillsIntervention SkillsFidelity of ImplementationEPICS-IIEffective Practices In Correctional Settings-II