Presentation on theme: "The Aeneid is the tale of the hero Aeneas who, after the destruction of his city, Troy, by soldiers from Greece, obeyed the commands of his gods to sail."— Presentation transcript:
The Aeneid is the tale of the hero Aeneas who, after the destruction of his city, Troy, by soldiers from Greece, obeyed the commands of his gods to sail the Mediterranean Sea with his fellow refugees to a land in the west, Italy, and build another city. Troy was destroyed around 1250 BC, as the story goes, and Aeneas’ adventured are described by the Roman poet Virgil who lived some 1200 years later, around 2000 years ago.
Written by Virgil between 30 and 19 BC Fall of troy 1250 BC, meaning Virgil describing imaginary events 1200 years before his own time. During 1200 years, the Greek town which had sacked Troy had been destroyed- Dark Ages. (poverty and cultural backwardness) Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great Foundation of Rome 753 BC- Major power in the Mediterranean, defeating Carthage, took over Sicily, Spain and Africa. Took over Macedonia and Greece. Cost of empire: economic and social disruption- 100 years of civil war as rich Romans tried to gain even more wealth and power for themselves. Assassination of Julius Caesar 44BC Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra at battle of Actium. Augustus, Rome’s first emperor.
Aeneas, leader of the Trojans in their quest for Italy. Anchises, father of Aeneas and his main adviser. Iulus, also called Ascanius, Aeneas’ small son. Creusa, wife of Aeneas, who dies in Troy. Dido, queen of Carthage, Aeneas’ lover for a short time. Latinus, king of Latium in Italy. Lavinia, his daughter, destined by fate to be Aeneas’ second wife.
Fate (Moira), the mysterious power which ultimately decides all events. Jupiter (Zeus), the most powerful god, who appears almost neutral as he has the task of carrying out the degrees of Fate. Juno (Hera), queen of the gods, who hates the Trojan and constantly thwarts their efforts to carry out their mission. Venus (Aphrodite), goddess of love and beauty, mother of Aeneas and his chief protector against Juno’s ill will. Minerva, goddess of wisdom, crafts and war, who favoured Ulysses and helped the Greeks destroy Troy. Neptune (Poseidon)m god of the sea, friendly to Aeneas.
What qualities made a person a hero in the ancient world? Were women in the ancient world able to be heroes? Can a modern woman qualify as a hero? What if anything has changed in our definition of a hero? What is a god according to the ancient Greeks/Romans?
Tells how Aeneas and his companions are driven by Juno’s storm to the coast of North Africa. Dido (queen of Carthage) makes them welcome and asks Aeneas to tell his adventures. Introduces most of the main characters. Outlines the plot Sets the story in place and time Introduces the main themes of the poem.
What is established in the first paragraph? What reasons are given for Juno’s hatred of the Trojans What is Gods’ relationship with fate? What does Aeneas’ first speech tell us about his character? What is the significant of the simile concerning Neptune? What does Aeneas’ second speech tell us about his character and how does it contrast with his first speech?
Her affection for Carthage which she had heard Rome would one day destroy. Her preference for the Greeks, especially those from Argos, in the Trojan War. Golden apple. Ganymede.
Represent a natural storm which subsides almost as soon as it blows up Direct intervention of divine beings in human affairs. Roman gods are not god or evil, rather they are friendly or unfriendly to humans. Friendly Neptune is able to counteract the storm of unfriendly Juno. Symbolic- Juno stands for violence, destruction and chaos. Neptune controls himself and clams the waves and is compared to a statesman soothing the violence of a mob of citizens in a public meeting. Reference to Augustus calming the passions of civil war and bringing peace back to the Roman world?
Furor- fury or violence, here of the mob. Pietas- dedication to duty, here the responsible attitude of the statesman. Conflict between these opposing ideas is a major theme of the poem. We will see Aeneas and others giving way to violence and watch their success or failure at regaining their self control and carrying out their duties.
With a partner discuss and write down what your first impressions of Aeneas are. Pay particular attention to his two speeches in the Book so far.
Venus complains about the Trojan misfortunes and is answered with a very important prophecy about the future. Virgil weaves legend and history. Aeneas will found his city in Italy 300 years later his descendant Romulus will found Rome. Romans are promised worldwide and everlasting empire under divine protection of Jupiter. This will happen when a ‘Julius’ shuts the Gates of war and gives peace and war to the Roman world. This is reference to Augustus who in 29BC closed the gates of the temple of Janus in the Roman forum to symbolise peace. Virgil is telling his contemporaries that for 1200 years Jupiter has guided Rome and helped her to gain an empire, in order that Rome might give the gifts of peace and low to the world.
In your groups, you will perform a role play showing your assigned god doing something to or for Aeneas or Dido in Book I. - Juno - Jupiter - Venus - Neptune
In groups answer the following questions while referring to your copy of the text: - What’s your first impression of Dido? - How is Aeneas described to Dido? - What is Dido’s first impression of Aeneas? - What does Dido offer the Trojans? - What does Venus do to Aeneas’ appearance? - What type of Queen is Dido? - Can you make any predictions about “doomed Dido?”
write down your own definition of pietas and furor. Give one or more example of each from Book I.
1. The Trojans are tricked into dragging the wooden horse into their city and spend the day celebrating the end of war. 2. The Greeks enter the city at night and the Trojans fight to defend and avenge themselves until the fall of the palace and the death of their king Priam. 3. Aeneas and his family leave the burning city.
That he was related to Palamedes (actually Ulysses’ cousin). Apollo demanded another Greek sacrifice to enable them to return to Greece (he didn’t). Minerva was angry at the insult to the Palladium (she was the other loser in the beauty contest, was still angry Paris had given Venus the prize and had told her favourite Ulysses how to make the horse).
WHY??? 1. Been at war for 10 years and are desperately anxious to believe the Greeks really are gone and the horse is harmless. 2. Sinon spins clever story or truth and lies: - Ulysses responsible for Palamedes’ death. - Agamemnon had sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia before the Greeks sailed to Troy. - Ulysses and Diomede had stolen the ancient wooden statue of Minerva, the Palladium. 3. Gods stepped in on the Greeks side. - Allowed Sinon to vow he was telling the truth and not punish him. - Minerva deliberately destroyed Laocoon for the apparent ‘sin’ of damaging the horse. (real sin was trying to thwart Minerva’s plans to destroy troy. - Ignoring the warnings of Cassandra - Ignoring the sounds of weapons clashing inside the horse.
Finish reading Book II. Make notes on these questions while reading Book II - How did the Trojans make it easy for the Greeks to capture Troy? - What message did Hector give Aeneas? - Why did Aeneas disregard the message? - What did he do instead? - What part did Venus play in Book two? - Why does Aeneas almost abandon his family a second time? - What finally persuaded them all to leave the city? - How does book II end?
What does Hector tell Aeneas in his dream? How does Aeneas behave? (Pietas or furor) What do you think Virgil thought about war? Why?
Aeneas is visited by Hector in a dream. Hector warns Aeneas the city is doomed and that he must take Troy’s gods and flee across the ocean. Ignoring Hector’s words, Aeneas rushes out to fight. Displays the characteristics of Greek heroes as described by Homer (fighting bravely for personal glory, cowardice the only vice) 1200 years later Roman heroes still fought but for their country rather than personal glory. Virgil loathed war-displays horror seen from the point of view of the losers and intensified by the brutality of the victors.
Who else tells Aeneas to leave troy? What does she do to convince him to leave? What does Aeneas do when Anchises refuses to leave? Why do they decide to leave Troy? How is Aeneas starting to make the transition from Greek hero to Roman hero? (pietas and furor?) How would have Dido felt hearing that Aeneas ran back into battle to save his wife? Can you find the snake simile throughout this book? What does Aeneas carrying Anchises on his back and leading Iulus by the hand symbolise?
After the slaughter of Priam, his king and father in law, Aeneas is once again told to leave troy, this time by Venus. Shows him the Gods taking an active part in destroying Troy, resistance is hopeless. Anchises refuses to leave-instead of saving his wife and child, Aeneas decides he will stay and fight. Jupiter sends an omen, Flames around Iulus’ head, thunder bolt and shooting star. Anchises is finally persuaded there is something special about his grandson and Aeneas leaves Troy with its past on his back and leading its future by hand. Creusa dies so Aeneas can marry Italian princess. Aeneas is responsible for many others now, transition from Greek to Roman hero.
write down at least four occasions on which Aeneas displays the irrational side of his character in Book II.