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Arete The Vocabulary of Sport. Diagoras of Rhodes Diagoras of Rhodes (Διαγόρας) a boxer. Victor in the 79th Olympiad, 464 BC. His sons' and grandsons'

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Presentation on theme: "Arete The Vocabulary of Sport. Diagoras of Rhodes Diagoras of Rhodes (Διαγόρας) a boxer. Victor in the 79th Olympiad, 464 BC. His sons' and grandsons'"— Presentation transcript:

1 Arete The Vocabulary of Sport

2 Diagoras of Rhodes Diagoras of Rhodes (Διαγόρας) a boxer. Victor in the 79th Olympiad, 464 BC. His sons' and grandsons' also became boxing and pancration winners and in the 83rd Olympiad his sons Damagetos and Acusilaus lifted their father Diagoras on their shoulders in the stadium. Diagoras was also a winner in the Isthmian Games (4 times) and 2 times winner in Nemea. His other son Dorieus and the two sons of his daughter were also winners in various Games.

3 Arete #170 (Pausanias) Arete #248 (Pindar. Olympian 7; also quoted by Miller in chapter 16)

4 MC Athletic Philosophy Monmouth College considers the intercollegiate athletic program to be an integral part of the total educational experience. Subscribing to a "sound mind in a sound body concept," the college recognizes the significant contribution of recreation, intramural and intercollegiate athletics to the development of male and female students. From a relaxed recreational program to the very rigorous intercollegiate program, Monmouth students can experience a wide range of athletic opportunities. The College is committed to providing equal opportunities for all its students. It is the goal of the college to provide experiences that will allow men and women to achieve their maximum potential in both academic and athletic endeavors. The health and welfare of our students is paramount. Athletic opportunities are provided in a context that fosters character development, safe participation, value enhancement and academic achievement. The education and development of the whole person is our fundamental commitment. The college firmly adheres to the spirit and intent of the rules and regulations of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Midwest Collegiate Athletic Conference. The College, while integrating the mandates established by both organizations, retains institutional control. All policies, rules, and regulations are reviewed regularly by responsible faculty and administrative personnel.

5 The Vocabulary of Sport game < ME game(n) < OHG gaman “glee” sport < disport < L dis + portare “to carry away” “to divert or amuse oneself” disport Chaucer. The Parlement of Foules. And in a privee corner, in disporte, Fond I Venus and hir porter Richesse. Chaucer. Wife of Bath’s Prologue He hadde a book that gladly nyght and dayfor his di{s}port he wolde rede alway Milton. Paradise Lost. IX There they their fill of love and love's disport Took largely, of their mutual guilt the seal The solace of their sin. Proverbs (King James Version) It is as sport to a fool to do mischief. Judges (King James Version) And it came to pass, when their hearts were merry, that they said, that they said, Call for Samson, that he may make us sport. And they called for Samson out of the prison house; and he made them sport; and they set him between the pillars.

6 Evolution of the word “Sport” (from the Oxford English Dictionary) sport < disport < L dis + portare “to carry away” 1. a) A pleasant pastime; entertainment or amusement; recreation; diversion (1440) b) Amorous dalliance or intercourse (1550) c) Pastime afforded by the endeavour to take or kill wild animals, game or fish. (1653) e) In the proverbial expression the sport of kings, originally applied to war-making, but later extended to hunting and horse-racing (1668) d.) Participation in games or exercise, especially those of an athletic character or pursued in the open air; such games or amusements collectively (1863) 2. a) in sport, in jest or joke, by way of fun or diversion; not seriously or in earnest (1440) b) Jest, jesting; mirth or merriment (1671)

7 “Sport” Around the World Most other modern languages derived their word from the English word: Ukranian spórt Modern Greek Spor Italian sport GermanSport Dutch sport Gaelic spors Turkish spor Rumanian Spórt Japanese supotsu

8 Other Important Sports Terms recreation to remake, recreate diversion to turn aside, divert contest/contestant struggle for victory or superiority from Latin for “testifying or witnessing together” compete/competition/competitor struggle or rivalry contest for prize from Latin for “seeking together” gynmasium from Greek for “naked” arete Greek word for excellence, virtue ludus Latin word for game or school

9 Greek Athletic Vocabulary sense of competition (agon) for a prize (athlos) agon—agony athlos—athlete athletes "someone who competes for a prize (athlos)” areteGreek word for excellence, virtue kaloskagathos "good and noble" The terms “sport” and “game” imply leisure and amusement which do not apply to Greek athletics. Greeks did not know the ideal of “being a good sport.” Greek culture was highly competitive. Rather they believed that A nice guys finish last. A winning isn’t the main thing, it’s the only thing. Show me a good loser and I’ll show you a loser. Greeks did not limit such competition to athletics. There were also poetic and musical competitions as well.

10 Philosophy of Sport Mens sana in corpore sano (“a sound mind in a sound body”) a medium of self- or life-fulfillment excess strength and the root of creative living play an aesthetic phenomenon ethical training a model of an “achieving society” a reaction compensating for and adjusting to the conditions of living in a world of industrial labor a sign-world a safety-value for aggression, instinctive reaction for the preservation of the race, and discharge through appetency a means in the class struggle of increasing production and overcoming alienation symbolized father-son conflict and substitute narcissistic satisfaction For further development of these ideas, see Philosophies of Sport.Philosophies of Sport

11 Riefenstahl's Olympiad Leni Riefenstahl ) “Olympiad” (1936)


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