Conquered by Romans Time period of Jesus Jews were expelled from Israel after an anti-Roman uprising
Diaspora Jews become minorities in countries all over Europe and Russia As non-Christians and minorities, they are often treated poorly Kicked out of many countries- Spain (reconquista), England but later allowed back in, France, etc.
Jews developed a culture that has its foundation in their precarious position Sometimes Europeans kings would expel them from the country just because they wanted their wealth Jews thus focus on a highly portable asset -- education Doctors, lawyers, etc.
Prejudice and Scapegoating Jews Were Relatively Successful/Wealthy in Many European Nations –Educated –Concentrated in cities –Moneylenders Irony of anti-Jewish ‘money-grubbing’ stereotype? Persecuted/scapegoated –Killers of Christ –Better off than me… why? –Economic depressions often cause hatred of money-lenders (why?) –In the Middle Ages, during the Black Plague, were massacred for ‘poisoning the wells’ since they seemed to die at a slower rate than other Europeans Kosher cleanliness rituals? Lack of contact with other Europeans? –Pogroms
Attempts to Stop the Plague Pograms against the Jews “Jew” hat “Golden Circle” obligatory badge
Ghetto System Europeans don’t want the Jews around, and yet… –…according to some biblical interpretations, the Jews must be present on the Day of Judgment… –they will be given a choice of whether to convert/repent or burn in hell –So you can’t get rid of them or you ruin the second coming of Christ –However, you don’t want them around, so… Don’t get rid of them, just separate them
Napoleon Releases Many Jews From European Ghettoes This was part of his genuinely liberal policy Once Napoleon was gone, there was an uneasy tension between Jews and Gentiles in European cities
Do we see how New Nationalism becomes extremely important to this story? Social Darwinism –Certain races are superior –Not surprising that the majority group feels they are that race –‘We-they’ outlook Scapegoats Use of Jews to whip up Bismarck style nationalism –If you can become popular starting wars against foreigners, you can probably do the same by persecuting the Jews
Social Darwinism Darwin’s ideas VS Survival of the Fittest among animal species Yay! Boo! Do we cry for this guy?
Darwin’s Ideas Were New and Earth- shattering in the late 19 th Century How did Social Darwinists use these ideas? Darwin’s ideas applied to human society Do we cry for the loser? Why? Why not? Justification
The Dreyfus Affair * In 1894 a list of French military documents were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris. * French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, he was one of the few Jews on the General Staff.
The Dreyfus Affair * Dreyfus was tried, convicted of treason despite very little evidence, and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana. * The real culprit was a Major Esterhazy, whose handwriting was the same as that on the bordereau. –The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days.
The Dreyfus Affair *A famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter called J’Accuse! –He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up. –The government prosecuted him for libel. –Found him guilty sentenced to a year in prison.
The Dreyfus Affair Dreyfusards Anti- Dreyfusards * Public opinion was divided it reflected the divisions in Fr. society. * The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals, free masons, & socialists. * For Anti-Dreyfusards, the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence. –Were army supporters, monarchists, & Catholics.
Dreyfus Affair In 1905, Dreyfus was finally given a new trial and exonerated
The Zionist Movement Theodore Herzl [1860-1904] *Was motivated by the Dreyfus trial to write the book, Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896. *Creates the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. *“Father of Modern Zionism.” *Was motivated by the Dreyfus trial to write the book, Der Judenstaat, or The Jewish State in 1896. *Creates the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. *“Father of Modern Zionism.”