Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What was the Industrial Revolution? What made the industrial revolution important? What impact do you think the industrial revolution has had."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What was the Industrial Revolution? What made the industrial revolution important? What impact do you think the industrial revolution has had on history?
Bell Ringer Where did the Industrial Revolution Start? Why did it start there? What do you think the first steam powered machine was?
Bell Ringer What were the benefits of the industrial revolution? What are Interchangeable parts?
Bell Ringer What was a Bessemer Press? What is a Monopoly? (NOT referring to the board game) What is a strike? (NOT referring to the bowling term)
Bell Ringer What is cottage industry? Why were children used for labor? What is urbanization?
CH 16: Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution around the World Though the Industrial Revolution (IR) started in England, it will spread to other Countries The increase in productivity that England experienced would be replicated in these other countries Industrialization also improved the standard of living for people and societies
IR in Belgium Because of its proximity to England the Industrial Revolution will spread there next The Belgians historically were known for textiles The Belgians will adopt the techniques and technology of the IR, and the mechanization of the textile industry will evolve first Belgium would sell their excess coal to bring in revenue, and would eventually turn their iron ore reserves into a thriving steel industry
IR in France The IR would spread to France, but their success was limited by their resources Without ample coal reserves of their own they needed to import resources from Britain and Belgium Their Revolution would focus largely on waterpower, and not steam power
IR in the USA The IR in the US would take off The New England area of the US would have a thriving cotton mill system, and the cotton came from the Southern States American inventors Eli Whitney & Simeon North introduced the idea of Interchangeable Parts to the IR. Machines and products were made with identical pieces so that broken parts could easily be switched with new ones
Steel Old Way: Iron (Soft & Brittle) Steel – Iron is mixed with carbon to make it stronger, harder, and lighter – Before 1850 making steel was expensive – Bessemer Press (1855): determines blowing air through iron while it is molten removes the impurities. Steel can now be made cheaper & faster – Andrew Carnegie invests heavily in steel and it becomes the metal of choice for construction, railroads, and bridges
“Rock Oil” Old Way: Whale Oil (for Lamps) Oil (Rock Oil) – A Canadian scientist figured out how to take ground oil (crude oil) and make it usable in lamps (Kerosene) – Edwin Drake (a railroad conductor) saw how companies only collected surface oil for use. – He learned about salt drilling techniques, leased some land, and successfully drilled the first oil well. – Oil would quickly boom into an important new industry as it was used for lamps, lubricating machines, and eventually fuel for cars.
IR in Germany Germany will industrialize late because of the autonomous nature of a disunited Germany However, Germany had large supplies of iron ore and coal which made them leaders in metalwork Supporting the railroad industry became Germany’s strong point Later on Germany would develop a strong chemical, electrical, and weapons industry
IR in Japan As Japan came out of isolationism they modernized Japan would mechanize silk weaving, and build railroads and ships The rapid industrialization of the country would make it a power in East Asia Japan would even force China to supply them with raw materials
IR Affects the Economy The rise of mechanization in production will greatly affect the economies of the world. Before the IR local craftsmen & artisans would produce the goods an area needed. This was known as the cottage industry or a domestic system. In the Cottage Industry people tended to produce goods out of their homes (cottages)
IR: The Factory System The evolution of the cottage system was the development of the factory system The factory system had many benefits – Merchants could oversee work – New technology could be utilized – Unskilled/semi skilled laborers could be used to complete specific tasks, thereby speeding up production (Division of Labor) All of these developments would help led to mass production
IR: Revolution in Agriculture Machines soon made their way onto farms American Inventor Cyrus McCormick created a horse drawn reaper that cut & collect grain This increased the amount of food farmers could produce, and lowered the amount of labor needed This is also the time period where farmers started to use fertilizers, ground cover on fallow fields, and bred livestock for best results
Financing the Revolution The IR led to capitalism- an economic system where resources are privately owned and market forces determine distribution Wealthy individuals saw the opportunity for success and would invest their money into specific industries (capitalism) Industries with more money would be able to grow larger & faster Banks also encouraged the IR by giving loans
IR- Big Business Making money is good, competing to make money is bad. Businesses under the IR would attempt to control an industry as fully as possible, leading to the rise of monopolies Rockefeller-Standard Oil, Carnegie- Carnegie Steel, Britain- Midland Railway, France- Parisian Gas Company – In Japan a monopoly was known as a zaibatsus
The Working Class The Industrial Revolution led to the development of “have” and “have not” (Social Darwinism) Those who succeeded were elevated, those who didn’t were crushed down. Those crushed were the working class. The workforce included men, women, and children (Blacks, Whites, & Immigrants)
Child Labor Children were Employed for two reason: – Even with both parents working it was often impossible to survive on just two incomes – Children earned less than adults, so factories would hire them because they were expected to do the same amount of work as an adult, but they were cheaper Children experienced some of the most dangerous working conditions (could fit into running machinery, or into smaller coal mines)
Working Conditions Owners were not overly concerned with Worker Safety Many worked in sweatshops, small/crowded/ unventilated rooms, where the spread of diseases was common. People continued to work in such conditions because with the increasing number of immigrants entering the country any protest could result in being replaced.
The Rise of Cities (Urbanization) People now took to the cities for new opportunities (where the factories were). The Industrial Revolution had lead to an increased number of factories. US Factories produced $2 Billion in 1865, and by 1900 produced $13 Billion making it the largest economy in the World In 1800 only 6% of Americans lived in cities, by 1900 nearly 40% lived in cities Between 1870 & 1900- 12 Million Immigrants would move to the USA, many of whom made up the US workforce
Living Conditions Tenements ->Slum NYC- 90,000 /sq mi (PSL 2,056/sq mi ) Infrastructure in many of these large cities was inadequate – Sewage problems, no indoor plumbing, lack of clean water, power outages, fire traps, disease, unpaved roads, etc
The Labor Movement In the late 1800s early 1900s workers – Had low pay – Worked in dangerous and unhealthy conditions – Children could not go to school – Often feared that their wages would be reduced without notice, or their jobs lost – Had ZERO ability to negotiate Meanwhile owners LOVED the situation Workers realized they needed to stay together, so they formed Labor Unions
Labor Unions were groups formed to protect the interest of the workers. – Higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions (Bread & Butter Demands) Unions would use collective bargaining, negotiating for all workers at once Their most powerful weapon was a Strike, or a total shut down of a factory.
Government Involvement (or lack) Government does little to stop IR problems, and in most cases they encourages it: – Laissez-Faire: Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations: “allow to do” Supply & Demand forces would regulate business, and it was government’s job to keep their hands off – Social Darwinism: The best run businesses with the most capable people would survive & prosper
What the IR brings The Industrial Revolution changed the world in irreversible ways – Capitalism was born – Exploitation of society began on a large scale – Increase production, money, and influences will also lead nations to build up their militaries in anticipation of Imperialism