7 Industrial Revolution around the World Though the Industrial Revolution (IR) started in England, it will spread to other CountriesThe increase in productivity that England experienced would be replicated in these other countriesIndustrialization also improved the standard of living for people and societies
9 Because of its proximity to England the Industrial Revolution will spread there next The Belgians historically were known for textilesThe Belgians will adopt the techniques and technology of the IR, and the mechanization of the textile industry will evolve firstBelgium would sell their excess coal to bring in revenue, and would eventually turn their iron ore reserves into a thriving steel industryIR in Belgium
10 The IR would spread to France, but their success was limited by their resources Without ample coal reserves of their own they needed to import resources from Britain and BelgiumTheir Revolution would focus largely on waterpower, and not steam powerIR in France
11 IR in the USA The IR in the US would take off The New England area of the US would have a thriving cotton mill system, and the cotton came from the Southern StatesAmerican inventors Eli Whitney & Simeon North introduced the idea of Interchangeable Parts to the IR.Machines and products were made with identical pieces so that broken parts could easily be switched with new ones
13 Steel Old Way: Iron (Soft & Brittle) Steel Iron is mixed with carbon to make it stronger, harder, and lighterBefore 1850 making steel was expensiveBessemer Press (1855): determines blowing air through iron while it is molten removes the impurities. Steel can now be made cheaper & fasterAndrew Carnegie invests heavily in steel and it becomes the metal of choice for construction, railroads, and bridges
14 “Rock Oil” Old Way: Whale Oil (for Lamps) Oil (Rock Oil) A Canadian scientist figured out how to take ground oil (crude oil) and make it usable in lamps (Kerosene)Edwin Drake (a railroad conductor) saw how companies only collected surface oil for use.He learned about salt drilling techniques, leased some land, and successfully drilled the first oil well.Oil would quickly boom into an important new industry as it was used for lamps, lubricating machines, and eventually fuel for cars.
15 Germany will industrialize late because of the autonomous nature of a disunited Germany However, Germany had large supplies of iron ore and coal which made them leaders in metalworkSupporting the railroad industry became Germany’s strong pointLater on Germany would develop a strong chemical, electrical, and weapons industryIR in Germany
16 IR in Japan As Japan came out of isolationism they modernized Japan would mechanize silk weaving, and build railroads and shipsThe rapid industrialization of the country would make it a power in East AsiaJapan would even force China to supply them with raw materials
17 IR Affects the EconomyThe rise of mechanization in production will greatly affect the economies of the world.Before the IR local craftsmen & artisans would produce the goods an area needed. This was known as the cottage industry or a domestic system.In the Cottage Industry people tended to produce goods out of their homes (cottages)
18 The evolution of the cottage system was the development of the factory system The factory system had many benefitsMerchants could oversee workNew technology could be utilizedUnskilled/semi skilled laborers could be used to complete specific tasks, thereby speeding up production (Division of Labor)All of these developments would help led to mass productionIR: The Factory System
19 IR: Revolution in Agriculture Machines soon made their way onto farmsAmerican Inventor Cyrus McCormick created a horse drawn reaper that cut & collect grainThis increased the amount of food farmers could produce, and lowered the amount of labor neededThis is also the time period where farmers started to use fertilizers, ground cover on fallow fields, and bred livestock for best results
20 Financing the Revolution The IR led to capitalism- an economic system where resources are privately owned and market forces determine distributionWealthy individuals saw the opportunity for success and would invest their money into specific industries (capitalism)Industries with more money would be able to grow larger & fasterBanks also encouraged the IR by giving loans
21 IR- Big Business Making money is good, competing to make money is bad. Businesses under the IR would attempt to control an industry as fully as possible, leading to the rise of monopoliesRockefeller-Standard Oil, Carnegie- Carnegie Steel, Britain- Midland Railway, France- Parisian Gas CompanyIn Japan a monopoly was known as a zaibatsusIR- Big Business
22 The Working ClassThe Industrial Revolution led to the development of “have” and “have not” (Social Darwinism)Those who succeeded were elevated, those who didn’t were crushed down.Those crushed were the working class.The workforce included men, women, and children (Blacks, Whites, & Immigrants)
23 Child Labor Children were Employed for two reason: Even with both parents working it was often impossible to survive on just two incomesChildren earned less than adults, so factories would hire them because they were expected to do the same amount of work as an adult, but they were cheaperChildren experienced some of the most dangerous working conditions (could fit into running machinery, or into smaller coal mines)
24 Working Conditions Owners were not overly concerned with Worker Safety Many worked in sweatshops, small/crowded/ unventilated rooms, where the spread of diseases was common.People continued to work in such conditions because with the increasing number of immigrants entering the country any protest could result in being replaced.
25 The Rise of Cities (Urbanization) People now took to the cities for new opportunities (where the factories were).The Industrial Revolution had lead to an increased number of factories.US Factories produced $2 Billion in 1865, and by 1900 produced $13 Billion making it the largest economy in the WorldIn 1800 only 6% of Americans lived in cities, by 1900 nearly 40% lived in citiesBetween 1870 & Million Immigrants would move to the USA, many of whom made up the US workforce
26 Living Conditions Tenements ->Slum NYC- 90,000 /sq mi (PSL 2,056/sq mi )Infrastructure in many of these large cities was inadequateSewage problems, no indoor plumbing, lack of clean water, power outages, fire traps, disease, unpaved roads, etc
27 The Labor Movement In the late 1800s early 1900s workers Had low payWorked in dangerous and unhealthy conditionsChildren could not go to schoolOften feared that their wages would be reduced without notice, or their jobs lostHad ZERO ability to negotiateMeanwhile owners LOVED the situationWorkers realized they needed to stay together, so they formed Labor Unions
28 Labor Unions were groups formed to protect the interest of the workers. Higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions (Bread & Butter Demands)Unions would use collective bargaining, negotiating for all workers at onceTheir most powerful weapon was a Strike, or a total shut down of a factory.
29 Government Involvement (or lack) Government does little to stop IR problems, and in most cases they encourages it:Laissez-Faire: Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations: “allow to do” Supply & Demand forces would regulate business, and it was government’s job to keep their hands offSocial Darwinism: The best run businesses with the most capable people would survive & prosper
30 What the IR bringsThe Industrial Revolution changed the world in irreversible waysCapitalism was bornExploitation of society began on a large scaleIncrease production, money, and influences will also lead nations to build up their militaries in anticipation of Imperialism