Presentation on theme: "Queen Elizabeth She was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace. Her birth was possibly the greatest disappointment of her father's life. He had."— Presentation transcript:
Queen Elizabeth She was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace. Her birth was possibly the greatest disappointment of her father's life. He had wanted a son and heir to succeed him as he already had a daughter from his first wife.
King Henry VIII and Anne Bolyne Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.
Queen Mary Mary, King Henry’s first child, by his first wife, Katherine of Aragon. Henry had not divorced Katherine, and changed the religion of the country in the process to get divorce from Katherine. After he divorced Katherine, he married Anne Boleyn in hopes to have a son to be his next heir to throne of England. However, once Anne became pregnant she ended up having a daughter, who was Elizabeth. Elizabeth's early life was consequently troubled. Her mother failed to provide the King with a son and was executed on false charges of incest and adultery on 19 May 1536. Basically, King Henry said Anne slept with her brother and said because of this she was also committing an act of adultery. Anne's marriage to the King was declared null and void, and Elizabeth, like her half-sister, Mary, was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the line of succession.
Elizabeth finally becomes Queen Elizabeth did finally succeed to the throne on 17th November 1558. It was a moment of supreme triumph for the unwanted daughter who had spent her life in the shadow of the court, cast aside and forgotten. The years following the death of her father had called for sobriety and caution, but now that she was Queen, Elizabeth was determined to enjoy her new found freedom and live life to the full. She loved all kinds of sports, especially horse riding, and in the early years of her reign spent many an hour riding. She also loved hunting, hawking, bear baiting, and watching the male courtiers excel at jousts or other sporting contests. She loved music and dancing, pageantry and masques, and could even play the virginals and the lute herself with skill. She had no time for the Puritan theologians who deemed such things impious. She also loved watching plays and created the atmosphere responsible for the flourishing of the literary masterpieces of the period against the Puritan demands for the closure of all theaters and playhouses. Shakespeare in Love @ beginning of Romeo and Juliet performance.
Beliefs About the Universe Elizabethans believed the earth was the center of the universe and was fixed firmly into place. All matter on earth was drawn to its center. Seven planets rotated around the earth, moving in concentric circles: –The Moon –Mercury –Venus –Sol (The Sun) –Mars –Jupiter –Saturn The planets in their motion around the earth made musical notes, and all of these sounds together formed a perfect harmony. Set of beliefs. People thought they could predict future events by knowing the conjunction of the stars, and the future of a person’s life could be known ahead of time by knowing the placement of the stars at that person’s birth.
The Almanac Almanacs were small books which gave miscellaneous information. They were printed in two colors: 1.black for the text 2.red for the titles, special days, and other notable items. Church feast days and a calendar were included along with instructions for the best time for: 1.Bleeding 2.Purging 3.Bathing 4.Etc. An almanac also contained notes on convenient times for: 1.Planting 2.beginning and end of Law Terms 3.dates when marriages could not be solemnized 4.dates of the eclipses of the sun and the moon 5.a vague prediction of what would happen during the year 6.a table showing how long the moon would shine each night 7.and a day-by-day forecast for the weather of the whole year
Interesting 1500 Facts Most people got married in June. Why? They took their yearly bath in May, so they were still smelling pretty good by June, although they were starting to smell, so the brides would carry a bouquet of flowers to hide their body odor. They took their yearly bath in May, but it was just a big tub that they would fill with hot water. The man of the house would get the privilege of the nice clean water. Then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children. Last of all the babies. By then the water was pretty thick that you could actually lose a baby in it. Thus, the saying, "don't throw the baby out with the bath water," it was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it.
The Humors Everything in the universe was thought to consist of four things: 1.Earth 2.Air 3.Water 4.Fire The human body was of the earth, it also consisted of these four elements, and medical practices and anatomy emphasized the need to understand how they worked together. A.Earth was identified as black bile B.Air was identified as blood C.Fire was bile D.Water was phlegm
Bearbaiting and Bullbaiting Two sports now considered inhumane were engaged in twice a week in London. 1.In bearbaiting a bear was tied to a stake by a long rope. Four or five huge, fierce dogs called Mastiffs were let into the pit with the bear, and they attacked the poor creature. When the dogs attacked, the bear fought back, although it was on a leash. 2.In bullbaiting a bull was let into a pit and “worried” to death. Teased and hurt until he died. 3.Another “sport” was even worse than these. A pony was led into the pit with an ape fastened onto its back. Dogs were sent in after them, jumping and trying to get the ape while the terrified pony lashed out at the dogs. 4.Other amusements included whipping a blind bear until blood was drawn.
Bearbaiting replicas at the Globe Theater in London
Letters and Seals A.When a legal document was drawn up between two people, the different copies were written by hand on a piece of parchment. The copies were then cut apart with a wavy or indented cut. This is where we get the word “indentures.”The purpose was to prevent forgeries, and if there was a question whether one copy was a genuine, it could be compared with the other copy. The copies were then folded and slits made through which a ribbon was passed. B.Seals were impressed when the writer ended a letter ensuring that the letter was not read in transit.
Heralds and Heraldry Heralds held and important place in the lives of the nobility. These men were concerned with the dignity and honor of the king, nobleman, and gentleman. Heralds organized all: 1.important ceremonies 2.particularly royal weddings 3.coronations 4.funerals 5.and certain ceremonial rites They were official messengers of the king during war and peace, and they read royal proclamations to the general public. Their most important function, however, was to preserve the records of noble families and to grant coat of arms to men considered worthy to be called gentlemen. They were a kind of “social register” and “Who’s Who” of their time.
Signs In Shakespeare’s England, houses were not numbered. Instead, each house displayed a sign which jutted out. Usually it was simple and may have been in the shape of a: 1.bell 2.dragon, or a 3.swan. Many homes in England are still named this way, and the public houses display signs which have been passed down for many years. Some signs contained recognizable symbols; for example: 1.red and white striped pole for a barber shop 2.Red and White Octagon represents a Stop Sign 3.Star which represents the Dallas Cowboys 4.Check mark which represents Nike 5.Mouse Ears which represent Walt Disney 6.Golden Arches which represent McDonald’s
Bowls Bowls refers to a favorite past time in which a small “bowl,” or ball (called a jack) was used as a mark at the end of a green lawn. The players roll their bowls toward the jack, and the one coming closest to it wins. When a bowl touches the jack, it was said to “kiss” it.
The Great Household In the large houses of the noblemen of Shakespeare’s plays, it was fashionable to employ as many servants as possible. The nobleman’s house was almost a small palace, and each head of the family, was called the “gentleman servingman.” Promising young scholars often took such a position. Likewise, a young lady from a good family might be employed to serve a family in this way, thereby learning polite behavior and how to run a household, serving until she married and had her own home. Such servants were not looked down upon and usually were equal in social status to the family for whom they worked.
It’s Raining Cats and Dogs You've heard of thatch roofs, well that's all they were. Thick straw, piled high, with no wood underneath. They were the only place for the little animals to get warm. So all the pets; dogs, cats and other small animals, mice, rats, bugs, all lived in the roof. When it rained it became slippery so sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof. Thus the saying, “It's raining cats and dogs“.
Canopy Beds Since there was nothing to stop things from falling into the house they would just try to clean up a lot. But this posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings from animals could really mess up your nice clean bed, so they found if they would make beds with big posts and hang a sheet over the top it would prevent that problem. That's where those beautiful big 4 poster beds with canopies came from.
Threshold When you came into the house you would notice most times that the floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt, that's where the saying "dirt poor" came from. The wealthy would have slate floors. That was fine but in the winter they would get slippery when they got wet. So they started to spread thresh on the floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on they would just keep adding it and adding it until when you opened the door it would all start slipping outside. So they put a piece of wood at the entry way, a "thresh hold".
Rhyme In the kitchen they would cook over the fire, they had a fireplace in the kitchen/parlor, that was seldom used and sometimes in the master bedroom. They had a big kettle that always hung over the fire and every day they would light the fire and start adding things to the pot. Mostly they ate vegetables, they didn't get much meat. They would eat the stew for dinner then leave the leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes the stew would have food in it that had been in there for a month! Thus the rhyme: peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old."
Bring Home the Bacon Sometimes they could get a hold on some pork. They really felt special when that happened and when company came over they even had a rack in the parlor where they would bring out some bacon and hang it to show it off. That was a sign of wealth and that a man "could really bring home the bacon." They would cut off a little to share with guests and they would all sit around and "chew the fat."
Tomatoes If you had money your plates were made out of pewter. Sometimes some of their food had a high acid content and some of the lead would leach out into the food. They really noticed it happened with tomatoes. So they stopped eating tomatoes, for 400 years.
Trench Mouth Most people didn't have pewter plates though, they all had trenchers, that was a piece of wood with the middle scooped out like a bowl. They never washed their boards and a lot of times worms would get into the wood. After eating off the trencher with worms they would get "trench mouth."
Upper Crust The bread was divided according to status. The workers would get the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family would get the middle and guests would get the top, or the "upper crust".
Marriage Customs Marriage, particularly for the good families and the wealthy, involved a rather complicated process. 1.First, there was a formal betrothal, which was a private affair. 2.Then the banns were published. This meant that on three successive Sundays the minister publicly announced in church that the parties intended to be married and called on anyone having reason to think the couple should not be married to come and say why. If the couple wanted to hurry up the process, it was necessary to obtain a special license from the bishop. 3.The wedding was usually an all-day occasion with a full ceremony and great celebration afterwards. 4.Early on the morning of the wedding, the bridesmaids showed up at the bride’s house. Shortly after that, the groom showed up at the bride’s house with his attendants, musicians, and friends. 5.After the ceremony, there was much feasting, dancing, drinking, and game playing. 6.After the bride and groom departed, the guests continued to celebrate.
'Marriage A-la-Mode' was the first of Hogarth's satirical moralising series of engravings that took the upper echelons of society as its subject. The paintings were models from which the engravings would be made. The engravings reverse the compositions. The story starts in the mansion of the Earl Squander who is arranging to marry his son to the daughter of a wealthy but mean city merchant. It ends with the murder of the son and the suicide of the daughter. In the first scene the aged Earl (far right) is shown with his family tree and the crutches he needs because of his gout. The new house which he is having built is visible through the window. The merchant, who is plainly dressed, holds the marriage contract, while his daughter behind him listens to a young lawyer, Silvertongue. The Earl's son, the Viscount, admires his face in a mirror. Two dogs, chained together in the bottom left corner, perhaps symbolise the marriage. Hogarth's details, especially the paintings on the walls, comment on the action. A grand portrait in the French manner on the rear wall confronts a Medusa head, denoting horror, on the side wall.engravingscompositions
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3152228.stm The couple are both school-age Ana-Maria's wedding was "agreed" when she was seven Ana-Maria's marriage has sparked demands for action to protect her
Funeral Customs For the nobleman, funeral services could be very elaborate with much pomp and circumstance. Enclosed in a covered coffin, the deceased was carried to the grave by pallbearers in black. Following the coffin was a long procession of mourners wearing hooded cloaks which completely covered them. The coat of arms of the deceased was painted on flags carried along in the procession, arranged and orchestrated by one of the family heralds, much as a holiday parade would now be conducted. After the funeral the mourners feasted, and money was given to the poor. The body was buried inside the church.
Wake They also had lead cups and when they would drink their ale or whiskey. The combination would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days. They would be walking along the road and here would be someone knocked out and they thought they were dead. So they would pick them up and take them home and get them ready to bury. They realized if they were too slow about it, the person would wake up. Also, maybe not all of the people they were burying were dead. So they would lay them out on the kitchen table for a couple of days, the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. That's where the custom of holding a "wake" came from.
Saved By The Bell or Dead Ringer Since England is so old and small they started running out of places to bury people. So they started digging up some coffins and would take their bones to a house and re-use the grave. They started opening these coffins and found some had scratch marks on the inside. One out of 25 coffins were that way and they realized they had still been burying people alive. So they thought they would tie a string on their wrist and lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night to listen for the bell. That is how the saying "graveyard shift" was made. If the bell would ring they would know that someone was "saved by the bell" or he was a "dead ringer".
The Mail There was no postal service for the general public, but there was a regular system of messengers on horseback used for official business. If an emergency existed, a postmaster at any of the stations long the route could conscript a horse belonging to anyone in order to get the message through. Messengers are frequently used in many of Shakespeare’s plays.
Bells Church bells rang for many occasions. They called the faithful to services on Sunday and holy days, announced good news, gave an alarm for fire or war and celebrated various occasions, including weddings and funerals. During fearful times such as an epidemic or the plague, the bells sounded constantly. When someone died, only an ominous single bell sounded.
Alchemy Alchemists were the predecessors of today’s chemists. Their work was based on the belief that all matter was compressed of the four humors. Pure gold was thought to be a perfect metal in which all these qualities were perfectly combined, and the alchemist’s primary quest was to find the “Philosopher’s Stone” which could change other metals into gold. They also contained the “elixir of life” which could remedy the discord of the bodily humors and be a cure for all diseases.
Dances Elizabethans loved to dance, horrifying the Puritans, who thought dancing was of the devil. Some of the most popular dances included: 1.the measure (slow and solemn) 2.the pavan (a dignified processional) 3.the galliard (quick and lively) 4.the capriol (one step was a jump into the air, clicking one’s feet together) 5.the brawl 6.and the jig
Sports and Hunting A.Fencing was a favorite. Betting often accompanied a fencing match, and one of the contestants would bet that he could hit his opponent a certain number of times. B.Hawking was very popular with the gentlemen. Much time was spent on training a hawk or falcon and keeping it in good condition. The birds were captured wild and then tamed. 1.The first step in training a hawk was to seal it’s eyes by passing a needle and thread through the lower eyelid of each eye 2.Then tying the thread back over the bird’s head. The eye could be opened at will by the falconer, because the temporary blinding made the bird easier to tame. 3.A hood was placed over the bird’s head and straps tied to his legs when he was taken outside. 4.Then the hawk or falcon was ready to train to hunt other birds. Bell’s on the birds legs allowed the falconer to keep track of it.