Bottom-Up Processing Information processing that focuses on the raw material entering through the eyes, ears, and other organs of sensation
Top-Down Processing Top-Down Processing: expectations and experiences influence how we interpret incoming sensory information expectations and experiences influence how we interpret incoming sensory information
Sensation v Perception Complete the worksheet
The Major Senses 7 major senses Vision (most studied) Vision (most studied) Hearing Hearing Touch Touch Smell Smell Taste Taste Vestibular Vestibular Kinesthetic Kinesthetic
The Riddle of Separate Sensations Sense receptors specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to a particular form of sensory stimulation specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to a particular form of sensory stimulation
Sensory Receptors – An Example When you bite into a crisp apple, you hear the crunch, you taste the sweetness, you feel the smooth skin, you see the red, and you smell the aroma.
Receptor Cells Each of the seven senses is specifically coded to only take in one type of stimulus, whether it be light waves, sound waves, smell, taste, or touch.
What Does That Mean? Turn to your neighbor and tell them what sensation means. What is with those blasted receptor cells as well… explain what they do
Threshold An edge or a boundary Walking into the room – on one side you are in the room on the other you are outside of the room
Absolute Threshold The smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time.
Absolute Threshold Example (1) Taste: 1 gram of table salt in 500 liters of water – the minimum needed to taste something
Absolute Threshold (2) Vision:A candle flame on a clear night, 30 miles away – the minimum needed to see it. Doesn’t mean that you can make out what it is
Just Noticeable Difference Threshold The minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli 50% of the time.
Examples When you can detect the difference in volume of music When you can detect the difference in pressure on your arm
Weber’s Law The greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the larger the difference must be in order to be noticed
Weber’s Law Example If you are carrying 20 lbs. and add 5 lbs., it’s noticeable. If you are carrying 100 pounds and add 5 pounds, it may not be noticeable. You need to add 10 lbs. to 100 pounds to make it noticeable.
Weber’s Law Lab In groups of 3, follow the directions and complete the lab
Sensory Adaptation When exposed to a stimuli over a period of time there will be a diminished sensitivity to it If a stimulus is constant and unchanging, eventually a person may fail to respond to it
Example of Sensory Adaptation A hot tub – after a certain period of time no longer seems as hot
The Nature of Attention Where does attention come into play here?
Hypothetical Situation What would happen if we had no filter between sensation and perception?” Hallway example
Sensory Overload Overstimulation of the senses
Selective Attention Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus (sense) to the exclusion of others
Selective Attention Examples Walking down the hallway – all 5 senses are firing. What grabs your attention?
Let’s write! How do sensations and perceptions differ? How do the senses transform information into brain messages? What is attention? How much control do we have over our attention?
Time to get creative! With your partner, create a poster depicting 3 the following: Sensation Sensation Perception Perception Attention Attention Absolute sensory thresholds Absolute sensory thresholds Sensory overload Sensory overload