2Four Types of Death Natural Accidental Noncriminal Suicide Homicide Noncriminal or Criminal
3Classification of Homicide Criminal (felonious)Murder (first, second, and third degree)Manslaughter (voluntary and involuntary)Noncriminal (non-felonious)Excusable HomicideJustifiable Homicide
4Degrees of MurderFirst-degree murder – requires premeditation and the intent to cause death.Second-degree murder – includes the intent to cause death but not premeditation.Third-degree murder – results from an act that is imminently dangerous to others and shows a disregard for human life.
5Manslaughter The unlawful killing of another person with no prior malice Voluntary manslaughter – intentionally causing the death of another person in the heat of passion, caused by words or acts that provide adequate provocation.Involuntary manslaughter – accidental homicide that results from extreme negligence.
6Noncriminal HomicideExcusable homicide – the unintentional, truly accidental killing of another person.Justifiable homicide – killing another person under authorization of the law.
8Various Elements of Murder Defined Premeditation – considering, planning, or preparing for an act, no matter how briefly, before committing itMalicious intent – implies ill will, wickedness or crueltyHeat of Passion – results from extremely volatile arguments between two people
9Investigating Suicide Check for weapons on or near the bodyAttempt to find a note or letterLook for videos or cassettes describing the actions takenExamine any pads of paper near the bodyLook for manuals on how to commit suicideCheck on prior arrangements with an undertaker or other evidence of putting one’s affairs in order
10Steps when Confronting a Suicidal Person Contain the areaMake a clear demand for compliance if time and circumstance allowAsk the person what he or she wantsRemain a good listener while avoiding making promises or committing to anythingSlow down the situation where possible
11Primary Goals of the Homicide Investigation Establish whether a human death was caused by the criminal act or omission of anotherDetermine who caused the death
12Focus of the Investigation Assess the victimDocument everything you can about the sceneIdentify the victimEstablish the time of deathEstablish the cause of and the method used to produce deathDevelop a suspect
13Identification of the Victim Family, relatives, or acquaintancesPersonal effectsFingerprintsDNA analysisDental and skeletal studiesClothing and laundry marksMissing-persons files
14Estimating the Time of Death Body temperatureRigor mortis – stiffening of parts of the body after deathPostmortem lividity – discoloration of the bodyAppearance of eyesStomach contentsStage of decompositionEvidence suggesting a change in the victim’s normal routine
15Rigor Mortis Appears in head: 5 to 6 hours Appears in upper body: 12 hoursAppears in entire body: 18 hoursDisappears in same order: 36 hours
16Most Common Case of Unnatural Death Gunshot woundsStabbing and cutting woundsBlows form blunt instrumentsAsphyxia induces by chokingDrowningHangingSmotheringStrangulationGases or poisonsPoisoning and drug overdoseBurningExplosionsElectric shockLightening
17Suicide Indicators Gun held against skin Wound in mouth or temple Not shot through clothing, unless shot in chestWeapon presentHesitation woundsWounds under clothingWeapon presentUsually wounds at throat, wrists, or anklesSeldom disfigurementBody not moved
18Murder Indicators Gun fired from more than a few inches away Angle or location that rules out self-inflictionShot through clothingNo weaponDefense woundsWounds through clothingNo weapon presentUsually injuries to vital organsDisfigurementBody moved
19Types of MurderMass Murder – multiple victims are killed in a single incidentSerial Murder – the killing of three or more separate victims with a “cooling off” period between the killingsLust Murder – a sex-related homicide involving a sadistic, deviant assault