Presentation on theme: "Types of Death. Natural Causes Quite simply when the body ceases to function of its own accord. There may be medical factors such as terminal illness."— Presentation transcript:
Natural Causes Quite simply when the body ceases to function of its own accord. There may be medical factors such as terminal illness which would bring about death.
Homicide The taking of one human life by another human being by means of pre-meditated murder. Pre-meditated means to have purposely planned and executed the murder of another human being in cold blood whilst trying to elude capture by the authorities.
Accidental Death As the term would suggest the death of an individual by means other than natural death, murder or suicide. Accidental death can sometimes be manslaughter - murder but committed out of an involuntary act of violence towards another.
Accidental death can also be categorised as death by misadventure. This means that the victim has died by accident either whilst doing something they should not have been doing or by taking risks that would put them in mortal danger. Extreme sports participants have died and their deaths have been classified as death by misadventure because of the extreme nature of their pastimes.
Suicide The deliberate taking of one's own life. Suicide is neither accidental nor is it classified as death by misadventure simply because the individual has set about on a course of action that would end with their own inevitable death. This could occur by means of drug overdose, the cutting of one's wrists to induce uncontrollable bleeding, or stepping out in front of a moving vehicle.
If there are visible wounds such as a gunshot wound or a knife wound then the most likely cause of death would be attributed to Homicide - or Murder. Many people have died from firearms related wounds whilst cleaning or maintaining their own weapons. For the most part the pathologist will concern themselves with how the victim died and will use this as a means upon which to base their final findings.
Throughout all of these types of death an autopsy will have to be performed in order to provide concrete proof that the pathologist - and indeed the police officers involved with investigating the death - is correct in their assumptions. Likewise their findings will also be presented to a coroner who will reside over an inquest and will finally be able to agree on the cause of death so that the family of the deceased may bury their loved one.
Examine the evidence; can you categorise the type of death? What further information might you need?
The six stages of AutopsyAutopsy Y-Incision Removal of Organs Stomach Contents Sample Collection Head and Brain examination Conclusion
The Y-Incision is the procedure used by the pathologist to open up the breastplate of the deceased and gain access to the body's major organs; heart, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen etc. This incision is so called because it resembles the shape of the letter Y and is cut from either shoulder to the lower end of the sternum and then downwards in a straight line over the abdomen to the pubis.
After the Y-Incision has been made all of the organs are removed and weighed. This is done because certain types of illness can cause a reduction or increase in the weight of organs such as the heart and/or the lungs. Most times when removed these organs are removed in one unit but sometimes - depending on trauma to the body - are removed in a specific sequence. Blood samples are taken, samples for DNA testing (as and when necessary but not necessary in all autopsies), and toxicological tests are carried out on the heart for signs of poisoning if no physical injuries have manifested themselves.weighed
After this the abdomen is examined and tissue samples taken for analysis and the contents of the stomach are examined
The pathologist will then turn his or her attention to the head area. The first thing they will do is look for signs of head injury, which should have been visible during both external examinations. Sometimes however head trauma cannot be visible simply by sight alone. The pathologist makes a triangular incision across the top of the scalp to reveal the brain and first of all examines it inside the head. Then once this has been completed satisfactorily the brain is removed for a more thorough inspection and also for tissue samples to be taken.
After all of these procedures have been carried out the organs are then placed back into the body and the body is carefully sewn up again.