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1 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Services

2 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES TLO and ELOs Terminal Learning Objective: Describe the considerations for field service and human resources support Enabling Learning Objectives: Describe the mission, capabilities, and employment of field services organizations Identify the categories of field services, the employment of elements providing field service support, and units providing quality of life support Identify procedures for determining field service support requirements and planning considerations Describe field service support considerations for offensive, defensive, stability and reconstruction, and civil support operations

3 References FIELD SERVICES Modular Force References
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES References Modular Force References FM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team Logistics, 15 March 2005 FM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 15 March 2005 FM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team Combined Arms Battalion, 15 March 2005 Army of Excellence References AR 638-2, Care and Disposition of Remains and Personal Effects, 22 December 2000 FM 4-0 (100-10), Combat Service Support, 29 August 2003 FM 10-1, Quartermaster Principles, 11 August 94 FM 10-23, Basic Doctrine for Army Field Feeding and Class I Operations Management, 18 April 96 FM 10-64, Mortuary Affairs Operations, 16 February 1999 JTTP 4-06, Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Mortuary Affairs in Joint Operations, 28 August 1996 (www.dtic.mil/doctrine) FM Multi-service Helicopter Slingload Operations, 1 April 2002 FM Aerial Delivery in a Theater of Operations, 29 October 2003 FM Direct Support Field Service Company Operations, 3 September 2003 Also: FM Force Provider Company, 6 October 1999 FM General Fabric Repair, 24 May 2000

4 Outline What are Field Services Field Feeding
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Outline What are Field Services Field Feeding Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair Mortuary Affairs Aerial Resupply Planners, Managers, and Organizations Supporting Offense, Defense, Reconstitution and Stability and Civil Support Operations

5 Field Services Include:
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Services Field services are essential to enhance a Soldier's quality of life during operations. Field Services Include: Field Feeding Shower, Laundry and Clothing Repair Mortuary affairs Preparation for aerial delivery Water production (covered with fuel instruction) (FM 10-1, Ch 16) TLO A major change is that field services are no longer being classified as either primary or secondary. Instead all field services will receive the same basic priority, leaving the decision as to which is most important to the theater Army commander. Water purification & field feeding are now classified as field services. As shown above, the classification of field services covers multiple and varied services or functions. Related publications include: FM 10-16, Fabric Repair; FM Basic field feeding doctrine; FM 10-52, Water supply; FM 10-63, Handling deceased personnel; FM , Mobile field laundry; FM , Airdrop operations.

6 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Feeding

7 Army Field Feeding Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Army Field Feeding Operations Unit Commanders’ responsibility Standard is three quality meals/day Rations are packaged as individual or group meals Feeding schedules are based on established operations orders and timelines AR , DEC 2002, para 2–4. Field feeding - Unit commanders are responsible for overall field feeding. Soldiers will be provided three quality meals daily. When units deploy under combat conditions or in support of contingency operations, the rations used will be initially meal, ready-to-eat (MREs). As the theater matures, soldiers will be provided the full complement of rations in accordance with METT–TC and as outline in AR 30–21 and FM 10–23. pp2 The inclusion of a hot cook-prepared meal in the standard of three quality meals per day is based on units having the required personnel and equipment necessary for implementation. The family of operational rations used to support this standard consists of: individual meals (Meal-Ready-to-Eat Meal, Religious, Kosher/Halal; Meal, Cold Weather/Food packet, Long Range Patrol; along with the emerging First Strike Ration and Compressed Meal) and group meals (Unitized UGR-A and UGR-H&S, along with the emerging Unitized Group Ration-Express (UGR-E)), plus enhancements such as bread, cereal, fruit, and salad and the mandatory supplement of milk to ensure the nutritional adequacy of the group rations.

8 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Feeding The field feeding system assumes CORPS and DIV wide use of the MRE The theater transitions from the MREs to unitized group rations (UGR) after approximately 30 days UGR-A (fresh foods) during extended deployments of 90+ days 21-Day contingency operations (CONOPS) menu when deployed beyond 180 days Food service support will be required for attached units Food preparation is a basic unit function performed by unit food service personnel. It is one of the most important factors in Soldier health, morale, and welfare. Food preparation is a basic unit function performed by unit food service personnel. It is one of the most important factors in Soldier health, morale, and welfare. Virtually every type of unit in the force structure has some organic food service personnel Virtually every type of unit in the force structure has some organic food service personnel During extended deployments of 90 days and beyond, the feeding standard is expanded to include the UGR-A Short order supplemental menus. This option provides for easy to prepare breakfast and lunch/dinner short order menus and affords choices in menu selection for the Soldier. The feeding standard applied when deployed beyond 180 days includes incorporation of the Department of the Army (DA) 21-Day contingency operations (CONOPS) menu and requires force provider type kitchen facilities or contractor logistics support only after 30 days. Food service support will be required for attached units. The field feeding system assumes Corps- and DIV-wide use of the MRE for the first several days following deployment. The theater then begins to transition to prepared group feeding rations. The theater initially transitions from the MREs to unitized ground rations (UGR). As the operational situation permits, logisticians attempt to introduce the A-ration (fresh foods) into theater. This requires extensive logistics expansion, since it requires refrigerated storage and distribution equipment and a capability to make or acquire ice for unit storage. Disposing of garbage is important to avoid leaving signature trails and maintain field sanitation standards. See FM 10-1 for more details. The bakery function, previously classified as a field service, is now an integral portion of field feeding. Bread is no longer produced in the AO, except in the field feeding system or through contractor support. Normal Class I supply channels handle pouched bread. The bakery function is no longer a stand-alone field service.

9 Field Feeding Corps DIV Containerized Kitchen Assault Kitchen
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Feeding Sustainment Base Containerized Kitchen Corps SUST X DIV BTB II I HHC SUST X BTB II I HHC Assault Kitchen Field feeding is located in the headquarters company (HHC) of the BSB The BTB has its own field feeding section, which can prepare, serve and distribute (via LOGPAC) the full range of operational rations -- METT-TC dependent FSCs provide field feeding to their supported battalions BSB II BTB II I HHC I HHC Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding Enhanced (KCLFF-E) II I FSC HHC, BSB PROVIDED FIELD FEEDING FOR THE BSB

10 Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair Showers AR , DEC 2002, para 2-6 Showering with warm water and soap at least every seven days reduces and/or prevents body lice infestation and positively influences morale. A minimum of seven minutes should be provided for showering per person. The showers shall be capable of accommodating both males and females separately. Units receiving shower service will provide the necessary security required for their personnel and valuables while showering. LADS The LADS consists of 2 laundry drums and water-processing equipment within an 8’x8’x20’ ISO frame, a fuel tank, a storage container and a generator mounted on a M871A3 trailer. The LADS provides the capability to wash and dry the laundry of 500 soldiers in the field per 20-hr operating period. It washes the laundry, extracts water and dries the laundry in the same drum. The laundry water is recycled and reused via a distillation process to minimize water consumption and waste water generation. 12-Head Shower System The 12-HS consists of 6 2-man shower stalls consisting of fiberglass bases with fabric secured over a framework of aluminum tubing. A combination of hose connections and a pump assembly supply water and provide drainage for the shower facility. Hot water is supplied by the diesel/JP-8 fired M80 water heater. The 12-HS provides a heated shower facility for soldiers in the field. It is capable of supporting min showers per hr. 12-Head Shower Unit LAUNDRY ADVANCED SYSTEM (LADS)

11 Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair (SLCR)
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair (SLCR) There are no SLCR support assets organic to the HBCT The QM Field Services Company, DIV/Corps Sustainment Brigades provides tactical SLCR services Shower and Laundry Goal: Provide weekly shower and launder up to 15 pounds of clothes a week Modular design: 6 SLCR sections each support 3,500 Soldiers (Total of 21,000 Soldiers a week) Must consider the additional water requirement resulting from SLCR use (15-20,000 gal/day) Laundry Advanced System (LADS) uses approximately 500 gal/day Reference: FM 10-1, Ch 19 details of the unit on pg 19-2 The Field Svcs Co (FSC), DS (Modular), is the primary provider of tactical showers, laundry, clothing repair, and delousing to forward deployed forces. It is normally assigned to a CSB in a COSCOM (Sustainment BDE, Corps). The Army goal is to provide Soldiers with 2 showers each week. In addition, Soldiers will be provided up to 15 pounds of laundered clothing each week. In this process, Soldiers will receive their clothing back from the tactical laundry within a 24 hour period. The concept of laundry and shower support has been developed around the FSC, DS (M). At level one capability the FSC can support 17,500 Soldiers a week. The FSC normally operates at the tactical level of logistics in the Corps (Corps) forward or Division (Div) area as far forward as METT-T allows. This company is modular by design with a platoon headquarters and five SLCR sections. Each SLCR section can support 3,500 Soldiers a week (500 a day) and may be deployed in support of a brigade-size element. The SLCR section is 100% mobile. When support is completed in one area, a section recovers equipment and moves to the next location. Clothing repair performed by SLCR sections are limited to individual clothing of units being supported with shower and laundry services. Repair is limited. No single repair shall exceed five minutes in duration and no item of clothing will be repaired if total repairs exceed 15 minutes.

12 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs

13 Mortuary Affairs Program
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Program Divided into three distinct sub-programs: Current Death Operates worldwide in peacetime, may continue in mass fatality events/low intensity conflict Provides mortuary supplies and services for permanent disposition of remains Concurrent Return Preferred method of handling remains during conflicts Provides for search, recovery, evacuation, tentative ID, mortuary services, and shipment to final destination Graves Registration Activated only upon approval of the Geographic Combatant Commander Provides for search, recovery, tentative ID, and, as a last resort, temporary internment in theater References: FM 63-3, Ch 4; FM 10-1, Ch 18 The 3 subprograms are as follows: Current death - Provides mortuary supplies and services for permanent disposition of remains and personal effects of persons for whom the Army is or becomes responsible. Operates around the world in peacetime; may continue in areas of conflict depending on logistical and tactical situation. Concurrent Return - Provides for search, recovery, and evacuation of remains to a mortuary. Provides for the positive identification, embalming, and disposition of remains as directed by the next of kin. It also provides for the handling and disposition of personal effects. Is activated during emergencies or major military operations when conditions and capabilities permit Positive Id is done through the use of DNA. Graves Registration - Provides for search, recovery, initial identification, and evacuation of remains for temporary interment. Provides for care and maintenance of those burial sites. Provides for handling and disposition of personal effects. .

14 Mortuary Affairs Sub-Programs
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Sub-Programs Place of Death CONUS Mortuary PADD Hospital Current Death Local Contract for CONUS Personnel No PE Depot Concurrent Return CONUS POE Mortuary Place of Death Collection Point TMEP PADD PADD: Person Authorized to Direct Disposition Graves Registration Place of Death Collection Point Temp. Interment No Embalming

15 Mortuary Affairs Company
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Company CO HQ Collection Platoon PE Depot Platoon Theater Evac/ Mortuary/Cem Plt Receiving Sec Processing Sec Evacuation Sec Storage Sec Collection Section Disposition Sec - During temporary interment, 2 theater evac platoons become 2 interment platoons - PE Depot may be detached and employed in theater or at port of entry mortuary

16 Mortuary Affairs Collection Company
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Collection Company Collection Platoons will be attached to the DIV Sustainment Brigade. The platoon will attach collection sections to the BSB of each BCT. Each section has refrigeration capability. Each section capable of processing up to 20 remains per day. Source: MA School POI lesson: “A-5 Force Structure .PPT”, SEP 2005 Currently 2 Collection companies on active duty: 54th and 111th (forming now). Both at Fort Lee. The 311 MA Collection company stationed in Puerto Rico is RC. The 248the MA Company (EAC) is also RC in Puerto Rico. COLL PLT MAIN RECEIVING SHIPPING FORWARD COLL SEC CO HQ

17 Support from a Mortuary Affairs Team
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Support from a Mortuary Affairs Team The HBCT is dependent on augmentation for collection, processing and evacuation. The team operates from the BSA and is responsible for processing remains. The team has no transportation capabilities and coordinates with the support operations officer for evacuation back to the theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP). Internal to the HBCT, handling teams are pre-designated at the battalion level and operate in the combat trains. NOTE: It is the maneuver battalion FSC’s responsibility to evacuate remains from the combat trains to the BSA A mortuary affairs team from the sustainment brigade provides mortuary affairs support to the HBCT.

18 Mortuary Affairs Site Selection
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Site Selection Accessible to a good road network (MSR) In close proximity, but not in view of the CSH Reasonably removed from Class I/Water point Accessible to rotary wing aircraft (LZ) Concealed from casual view Sanitation facilities available SECURE TAJI, IRAQ ELO C Fm 10-64, 2-4 Source: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations.ppt”, SEP SLIDE 5

19 Forward MA Collection Point
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Forward MA Collection Point 1 FWD CP Assigned Per BDE SPT BN Assigned MA Collection Company 6 Personnel Per MACP working 2 – 12 Hour Shifts Process approximately 20 Remains / 24 Hours Requires Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported Unit Equipment: 1 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted 1 – 5-Ton Tractor 1 – 5-Ton Cargo Truck 1 – 400 Gallon Water Trailer 2 – Tents Source: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 8 MISSION: Conduct limited search and evacuation operations of deceased U.S. Military, certain U.S. civilian and Allied personnel. Receive, inventory, and coordinate evacuation of Personal Effects (PE) with remains.

20 Main MA Collection Point
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Main MA Collection Point 1 Main CP Assigned per CORPS Assigned from the CORPS MA Collection Company Requires Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported Unit Major Equipment: 1 – HMMWV 5 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted 5 – 5-Ton Tractor 2 – 2 1/2 -Ton Cargo Truck 2 – R/T Forklift Source: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 9 MISSION: Establish, operate, and maintain a CORPS Main Collection Point that receives remains and Personal Effects (PE) from the Forward Collection Points.

21 Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP)
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP) 2 Platoons from the QM MA CO (EAC) Assigned to a Theater Sustainment Command Each Platoon can Process 250 Remains / 24 Hours Requires UCMJ, Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported Unit Major Equipment (Dependent upon Theater Resources): 2 – HMMWV 3 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted 3 – 5-Ton Tractor 2 – 2 1/2 -Ton Cargo Truck (LMTV) 1 – R/T Forklift 1 – 400 Gallon Water Trailer TMEP Source: MA School POI lesson: “C-1 TMEP .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 3 MISSION: Establish, operate, and maintain a Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (Concurrent Return) or Temporary Interment sites in Theater (Graves Registration).

22 Mortuary Affairs NCO, SPO Supply and Services Cell
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs NCO, SPO Supply and Services Cell Advises the BSB commander Coordinates MA operations Trains the brigade and BSB units and personnel Establishes the mortuary affairs collection point in the BSA Coordinates for augmentation Maintains files Plans and coordinates escort of remains MA NCO duties: The MA NCO coordinates all MA support within the brigade area. Advises the BSB commander on MA issues. Coordinates MA operations in the brigade AO. Trains the brigade and BSB units and personnel on performing search and recovery, tentative identification, and evacuation of remains to the mortuary affairs collection point (MACP). Establishes the mortuary affairs collection point in the BSA. Coordinates with the sustainment brigade for augmentation by a MA collection platoon. Advises on emergency burial policy and the security and disposition of remains and personal effects. Plans and coordinates escort of remains. Maintains files, reports, and a situation map on MA support activities.

23 Mortuary Affairs Support Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Support Operations At unit level, remains are tentatively identified and evacuated to the Battalion Aid Station for medical verification Unit commanders are responsible for initial search, recovery, identification, and evacuation of remains to the MACP. (The FSC distribution platoon evacuates remains to the BCT MACP.) The sustainment BDE MA Co deploys a MA platoon forward to the DIV. The MA platoon then sends a MA collection section to the BSB. The MACP provides temporary storage of remains and personal effects (PE) before evacuating the remains and their accompanying PE to a MACP sustainment BDE or the TMEP. AR , DEC 2002, para 2-9 Commanders are responsible for initial search and recovery. A mortuary affairs unit assigned to the DIV supports on an area basis. This unit operates collection points throughout the DIV and brigade areas. These points receive remains from units, assist and conduct search and recovery operations, and arrange for the evacuation of remains to a mortuary or temporary burial site. Mortuary affairs units operate theater collection points, evacuation points, and personal effects depots. Mortuary affairs personnel initially process remains in theater. Then, they arrange to evacuate remains and personal effects, usually by air, to a CONUS POD mortuary. A DIV MA collection team augmented to the HBCT will establish a collection point in the vicinity of the BSB. The MA team is capable of processing 20 remains and associated personal effects per day

24 Mortuary Affairs Evacuation
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Evacuation Vehicles bringing supplies (except Class I) to the BSA evacuate remains from the BSA collection point as a backhaul mission or by throughput to the sustainment brigade collection company Evacuation of remains from the HBCT to DIV mortuary affairs collection point or theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP) The recommended method of evacuation of remains is air evacuation (fixed or rotary wing) in coordination with the BSB support operations and DIV G3 air. Applying the throughput concept, remains may be evacuated directly to the rear for shipment to the port of embarkation (POE) mortuary. The HBCT is dependent on augmentation for collection, processing and evacuation. A mortuary affairs team, from the theater sustainment brigade provides mortuary services support to the HBCT. The team operates from the BSA and is responsible for processing remains. The team has no transportation capabilities and coordinates with the support operations officer for evacuation back to the theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP). Internal to the HBCT, handling teams are pre-designated at the battalion level and operate in the combat trains. It is the battalion’s responsibility to evacuate remains from the combat trains to the BSA.. For example, Bravo company’s remains are picked up by FSC trucks during LOGPAC operations and returned to the CABSA. BSB vehicles retrograde the remains to the BSA MA collection point during unit distribution resupply, The BSB supply and services cell coordinates (with SUS BDE or G3 Air) for further retrograde of remains to the DIV or CORPS or Army collection points or the theater mortuary affairs evacuation point (TMEP).

25 Mortuary Affairs Remains Flow
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Mortuary Affairs Remains Flow CONUS Sustainment Base XX Corps TSC SUST X DIV MA TMEP SUST X MA FM A mortuary affairs (MA) company will be dedicated to each UE to provide for limited search and recovery, identification, disposition, and respectful handling of human remains. The MA team provided to the HBCT will establish a collection point in the vicinity of the BSB and will be capable of processing 20 remains per day. This team will also train HBCT personnel on the proper handling and evacuation of remains. Evacuation of remains from forward areas to the collection point will remain a unit responsibility. Evacuation of remains from the HBCT to UE facilities will occur during MSO operations (METT-TC dependent). TMEP capability typically found in the MA CO EAC. May be necessary to have EAC PLT augmentation at the Corps level to run TMEP. Major changes in MA doctrine upcoming: FM Draft due out, will go to one standard MA CO in FY08 111th MA Co will activate in OCT 05 at Fort Lee MA Collection Platoons will have separate SRCs for modular employment Main Collection Platoon of MA Collection company will have initial responsibility of running TMEP and MADCP until RC MA Company arrives in theater REF processing in OIF: It takes about hours in Theater (i.e killed at Mosul, processed at Mosul Mortuary Affairs Collection Point (MACP), then to the Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP) in Kuwait.  From there it depends on a flight, but usually no longer then 12 hours.  At the Port of Entry Mortuary (Dover) is the biggest factor.  It depends how long it takes to coordinate with family and funeral home, but they try for anywhere from 3 to 8 days.  So, it takes usually about 5 to 10 days from death to a family’s funeral home.  There can be exceptions (i.e. if the body requires a lot preparation, or the family takes it’s time making a decision) that can cause it to take much longer.  CPT Rod W. Secor, S3, 240th BN, Fort Lee, VA Comm: , Cell: AIR BSB II MA II I FSC

26 OIF & OEF MA Locations Mosul Tikrit Balad Baghdad Baghram Al Asad
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES OIF & OEF MA Locations Baghdad Tikrit Mosul Camp Wolf Balad Al Asad TMEP Baghram Kandahar

27 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Theater Evacuation TMEP

28 Aerial Resupply FIELD SERVICES 4/13/2017 7:54 PM
AR , DEC 2002, para 2-10 Airdrop becomes more important as the combat intensity increases and the depth of the battlefield extends. The force structure required is highly specialized and, when possible, should be in place, ready to provide this critical field service when required. The sling load method allows for the rapid movement of heavy, outsized equipment, or emergency supplies directly to the user. Sling loading allows the use of multiple flight routes and landing sites to enhance the sustainability and security of ground units and provide greater movement flexibility for the ground commander to accomplish the tactical mission.

29 Aerial Resupply Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Aerial Resupply Operations The HBCT has no aerial delivery capability Air Force airlift and Army aviation assets may supplement the HBCT’s transportation capability When supply routes become severely disrupted, the use of aerial delivery may be necessary Units must be prepared to receive both air-dropped and sling-loaded supplies BSB SPO must coordinate for the backhaul for aerial delivery equipment (sling sets, parachutes, platforms, etc.) Reference: FM 10-1, Ch 17 Airdrop is a field service that may be required on the battlefield at the onset of hostilities. There is no airdrop capability in the DIV Each Corps requires one or more airdrop support units which provide(s) airdrop resupply support to all elements of the Corps. Airdrop is a vital link in the distribution system. It extends ALOC and serves as a combat multiplier. It provides the flexibility required of the supply & distribution system. There are two types of request procedures---preplanned & immediate. Preplanned requirements are based on known projected requirements & can be programmed in advance(S4/G4 channels). Immediate requests stem from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. These requests flow through the Army operational channels (S3/G3) to the validating authority. Planning factors are found in FM /2. Planning factors help determine force structure, aircraft requirements, airdrop work load, air delivery equipment stockage levels, and equip recovery rates. Many airdrop support units are in force compositions other than the active Army (COMPO 2,3, or 4). Airdrop support units may not always be available; therefore, planners should consider alternatives. One alternative is to prerig critical supplies/equip for airdrop. Certain contingencies may require airdrop resupply support from the beginning of hostilities. However, the requisite airdrop support structure is not likely to be in place due to deployment priorities. The operational-level commander should consider having a portion of the supporting airdrop supply company deploy to the depot responsible for supply support to the contingency area. If forces require airdrop resupply before deploying the airdrop support units to the theater, the unit may rig supplies for airdrop at the depot. Forces then fly supplies directly to the airdrop location. This requires adaptation of the request procedures outlined in FM FMI The following discussion on aerial delivery for resupply operations discusses four methodologies to affect these operations: aerial delivery, precision aerial delivery, slingload delivery or airdrop delivery. Methods of Aerial Delivery: Airdrop Operations Sling load Operations Airland Operations

30 Methods of Aerial Resupply
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Methods of Aerial Resupply AIRDROP OPERATIONS SLINGLOAD OPERATIONS AIRLAND OPERATIONS

31 Airdrop Operations Airdrop Operations FIELD SERVICES
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Airdrop Operations Airdrop Operations High Velocity - Can be used to drop subsistence, packaged POL and ammunition. Parachute has enough drag to hold the load in an upright position. Rate of descent is feet per second. Low Velocity - Used for fragile material such as vehicles or artillery pieces. Items are rigged on a airdrop platform or in an airdrop container. Rate of descent is approximately 28 feet per second. Free Drop - Used to drop barrier material, PSYOPS material, rations or other non-breakable items. No parachute or retarding device is used for free drop. Rate of descent for free drop is 130 to 150 feet per second.

32 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Airland Operations Requires an operational and secure airfield/field landing strip, material handling equipment (MHE) and fuel storage containers when using “Bladder Birds.” Can load L pallets on a C130, L pallets on a C141, and L pallets on a C17. C130 “Bladder Birds” can provide 6,000 gallons of fuel (2,400 peacetime, and C141 “Bladder Birds” can provide 9,000 gallons

33 Slingload Operations Relies on recovery of assets
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Slingload Operations Relies on recovery of assets Pinpoint supplies on the ground Versatile, priorities can be shifted easily Load depends on the aircraft (CH-47 vs. UH-60) Maximize backhaul Uses Army aviation assets Must have trained personnel SLICC, Pathfinder, Air Assault SLICC Sling Load Inspection Certification Course. A five-day course conducted as a resident course at Fort Lee, and as a mobile training course at various host installations. Trains personnel from all services to sling load inspectors. Pathfinder: A three week course. Trains personnel to establish and operate a helicopter landing zone (LZ), parachute dropzone (DZ), conduct slingload operations, and provide air traffic control. https://www.infantry.army.mil/airborne/pathfinder/admin.htm Air Assault: A 10 ½ day course taught in various location including Fort Campbell, Hawaii, and Germany. Trains personnel in air assault operations including: slingload and pathfinder.

34 Aerial Resupply Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Aerial Resupply Operations Advantages include: Permitting throughput of supplies from Sustainment Brigades to using units, even if the unit is in an unreachable area Reduces the need for forward airfields or landing zones Permits greater dispersion of ground tactical forces Reduces delivery time (travel time only) Provides a shorter turnaround time than ground combat logistics patrols Disadvantages include: Vulnerability to enemy aircraft & ground fire Fewer supplies & equipment that can be carried The need for specialty trained rigging and drop zone personnel The impact of adverse weather on delivery capabilities and accuracy The impact of aircraft availability and operational readiness rates Reference: FM 10-1 pg 17-2

35 Aerial Resupply Request Procedures (Army Air)
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Aerial Resupply Request Procedures (Army Air) XX Corps Sustainment Base TSC DIV CAB X XXX 5 9 Corps CAB X XX G3 SUST X 4 DIV G3 SUST X 3 AIR 1. Requirements determination at the Battalion level (usually via LOGSTAT). 2. Brigade S4 consolidates requirements passes to BSB SPO. SPO/BDE S4 determine need for aerial resupply to fill BDE requirements and pass to the BDE S3/BAE. 3. BDE S3/BAE validates and passes to the DIV G3 (air). G3 validates requirements, looks at available aircraft/aircrew, and passes the mission off to either the Aviation Brigade S3 or higher to the Corps G3 (air) 4. Once the Avn BDE S3 receives the mission, they will task a subordinate Bn to execute. 5. If the Avn BDE supporting the DIV is not capable of supporting the mission the requirement is passed higher to the Corps G3 (air). 6. The Corps G3 can commit the assets of the Avn BDE supporting the Corps. Once the Avn BDE receives the mission they will task a subordinate Bn to execute. FMI GENERAL Army aviation is an extension of ground maneuver providing an aerial dimension to the DIV or BCT. Army aviation performs combat, combat support (CS), and CSS missions within all the BOS. Aviation is ideal for air movement and aerial sustainment in support of special operations, light, airborne, air assault, and heavy forces. Aviation performs crucial tasks in providing Aerial Sustainment Support to the force as a whole. Current operations are sustained through a globally networked, distribution based logistics system and reach-back capabilities. Increased operational distances, non-secure LOCs and a non-contiguous battlespace, result in greater reliance on aerial distribution platforms as a means of providing responsive and agile support from multiple locations within the theater. Lift aviation forces conduct air assaults, team insertion/extraction, mine dispensing, C2, air movement, and aerial sustainment to accelerate the tempo of ground combat elements. 6-78 FMI April 2005 Enhanced lift capabilities of multi-function aviation brigades increases the tonnage of aerial sustainment supplies, which means aerial sustainment can supply a larger percentage of fuel, ammunition, and other needs to supplement ground transport. AERIAL SUSTAINMENT Aerial sustainment is the movement of equipment, material, supplies, and personnel by utility, heavy, and fixed-wing assets for operations other than air assault and combat support. Aviation provides air movement of personnel, equipment, ammunition, water, parts and supplies; and performs CASEVAC and aviation maintenance. These air movements are considered CSS missions because aviation forces are not task-organized with combined arms forces, nor do they move combat or combat support forces or assets whose primary mission is to engage and destroy enemy forces. Heavy BCTs and Infantry BCTs have significantly different needs and requirements. Aerial sustainment through direct support (DS) and general support (GS) is critical for light, airborne, and air assault forces. Resupply of key ammunition and parts is critical for heavy brigade combat teams (BCT). Aerial sustainment of the modular force is achieved through DS and GS on an anticipatory preplanned basis, not attachment to the support command structure. The number and variety of missions, coupled with the limited lift assets, necessitates that command, not CSS channels, initiate air movement and aerial sustainment taskings. Mission requests go through command channels for allocation of support based on the commander’s and G3’s priorities. Although aircraft may provide a level of DS and GS support to a particular aerial sustainment mission, these aircraft are not transportation assets, and do not fall under CSS unit control. The myriad of combat and combat support missions these aircraft must perform with limited assets prohibits organic or attached support as a transportation asset. Aviation taskings through command channels allow rapid transition between combat, CS, and CSS missions. This process also keeps aircrews better informed, and permits simultaneous execution of all three mission types with the same set of aircraft. The tempo of resupply operations can dramatically impact combat operations. It is essential that aircraft utilization be optimized. The goal is to maximize the number of turns during each shift. This can only be accomplished through coordination and training. FMI Brigade Aviation Element. the BAE is composed of a major, a captain, a senior warrant officer and three enlisted men. 1-48. The BAE provides: 􀁺 Integration and synchronization of aviation into the BCT commander’s scheme of maneuver. Focus on incorporating aviation into the commander’s plan. Coordinates directly with aviation brigade(s). Close integration/ synchronization with the air liaison officer (ALO) and fire support officer (FSO). Employment advice and planning for the reconnaissance and attack elements, assault helicopters, airborne command and control assets, heavy helicopters, medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Army airspace command and control (A2C2) planning, coordination, and airspace deconfliction for combined arms, joint, interagency and multi-national (JIM) operations. BSA 2 BSB II X BDE S4 II BDE S3 BAE I FSC 1

36 Planning Considerations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Planning Considerations Replacement of authorized personnel, equipment and supplies Requirements determination Status of support sites Support relationships Site locations Based on: Headcount, Personnel estimate, Commanders guidance How many showers, meals, do you need? Do you need airdrop? What supplies are consumed by a TWPs? Do I want the showers next to the trash point? Quartermaster DIV personnel in a variety of units perform field service functions. During combat operations, military personnel provide most of the field service support in forward areas, with host nation support (HNS) and contractors providing a limited amount. Conversely, HNS and contractors provide much of the support in rear areas. HNS, Kellogg, Brown and Root, etc During stability or support operations, field service support at all levels may come from a variety of sources 92A (Usually cross trained if other MOSs unavailable) 92G (Food Service) 92M (Mortuary Affairs) 92R (Parachute Rigger) 92S (Shower, laundry and textile repair) 92W (Water Purification)

37 Field Service Branch, Support Operations Sustainment Brigade
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Field Service Branch, Support Operations Sustainment Brigade CSSAMO CONTRACTING HN SUPPORT FIELD SVCS MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION KEY TASKS O MORTUARY AFFAIRS OFF A4V CW3 SR AIRDROP SYS TECH A E FIELD SVCS NCO S40 E MORTUARY AFFAIRS NCO M30 E6 FIELD SVCS NCO S30 Exercises staff supervision Development field services policies and programs Conduct Combat Service Support (CSS) planning for field svc’s   Conducts ongoing analysis of services capabilities and requirements in coordination with the Supply Division Assists in determining appropriate positioning of field services assets to support customer units for logistic tracking

38 Sustainment Brigade SUS BTB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB HHC HHC
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Sustainment Brigade SUS Assigned Attached BTB CSSB MED BDE CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB HHC CSSB Assigned Attached (FMI ) ELO 5 Sustainment Brigade DIV may have field services attached. Field service companies are normally found in the Corps and higher Sustainment for the DIV is supported and controlled by the Sustainment Command (Theater) (TSC) through Sustainment Brigades. These Sustainment Brigades work for the Sustainment Command (Theater) directly (operational logistics), work for a DIV (tactical logistics), or work for another component of the joint force (component logistics). Note that the brigade headquarters of the Sustainment Brigade is the same for any of the missions. The difference is the type and number of subordinate battalions assigned. The brigades are multifunctional combat service support (CSS) organizations, tailored and task organized according to METT-TC. The operational Sustainment Brigade normally remains under the operational control of the TSC, and hence the Corps. The operational Sustainment Brigade normally operates a theater level base in the JOA or on an intermediate staging base (ISB) near the JOA. The operational Sustainment Brigade provides area support to all units in the base, including units deploying or in route to the gaining tactical headquarters. The operational Sustainment Brigade also supports joint, interagency, and multinational forces as directed by the TSC and joint force commander. The tactical Sustainment Brigade is under the operational control of the DIV. Both brigades provide area support; although the specific tasks they are assigned differ. HHC SIG FIN HR AMMO TRANS MAINT S&S Mission: Plan, coordinate, synchronize, monitor, and control logistics operations within assigned AO. Coordinates Host Nation Support (HNS) and contracting. Provide support to joint, interagency, and multinational forces as directed.

39 BSB SPO: Supply and Services Cell
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES BSB SPO: Supply and Services Cell KEY TASKS BSB SPO Sup & Svc Cell Maint Cell Trans Mgt Cell HHS Cell Ammo Cell Contract Cell Forecast, coordinate, and monitor the field services Conduct logistics preparation of the battlefield Provide technical expertise on field services Coordinates the evacuation of remains Supervises the mortuary affairs (MA) NCO

40 Heavy Brigade Combat Team (Organic Log Support)
4/13/2017 7:54 PM Heavy Brigade Combat Team (Organic Log Support) FIELD SERVICES X BTB BSB 132 FSC (MNV) MAINT ... MCS/HQS SECTION RECOV SECT ARMOR FMT MECH ENGR .. DISTRO HQS GEN SUPPLY WATER CL V FIELD FEEDING HQ FSC (ARS) HHC 143 81 FSC (FIRES) Distro 171 137 1CD LOG CONF DRAFT 12 Sep 05 FSC (MNV) Maint 230 (x2) 77 Mission: The FSC is a multifunctional unit organized to perform distribution of all classes of supply, minus medical, to its supported battalion. Med 77

41 4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Supporting Offense, Defense, Reconstruction and Stability and Civil Support Operations

42 Supporting Offensive Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Supporting Offensive Operations Most field services suspended Plan future field service operations Integrate field service operations with the tactical plan Plan triggers for activating/deactivating points Coordinate the locations, displacements, and routes of sustainment Use field service assets to overcome other CSS shortfalls Mortuary affairs is (mostly evacuation) is the exception. Plan field service operations based on anticipated support needs of each subordinate unit. Integrate field service operations with the scheme of maneuver to ensure proper timing and to avoid interfering with likely or planned maneuver actions. Plan locations of field service operations in covered and concealed locations Plan triggers for activating and deactivating collection points based on the HBCT’s movement and execution. Coordinate the locations, displacements, and routes of sustainment assets and units to maintain responsive support. Consider using field service equipment to cover other shortfalls, use of SLCR for chem/decon, use of water assets for chem/decon, engineer operations, use of those field service MOSs to assist in security or other tasks.

43 Supporting Defensive Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Supporting Defensive Operations Avoid patterns Location of field service sites and units Movement Terrain Periodically move field service units Cover and concealment Engineer and Medical support may be required Avoid setting patterns of support to decrease the vulnerability of enemy interdiction, vary LOGPAC times, meetings, etc.. Consider conducting LOGPACs and other routine logistics activities during limited visibility. Position the BSA and sustainment units as far to the rear as possible, but close enough to be responsive to maneuver units Avoid positioning sustainment sites and units along enemy ground/air avenues of approach or in the vicinity of templated artillery, NBC, or situational obstacle strikes. Requires coordination with S2 and S3 Coordinate movement and terrain requirements with maneuver plans and positioning of other units such as artillery. S3 controls maneuver, S4 controls movement; SPO recommends terrain, S3 controls it. Periodically move sustainment units based on the threat level to decrease their vulnerability of detection. Generally every 72 hours Maximize the use of cover and concealment, dispersion, and protection afforded by the terrain. Trees, camoflague, wadis, ditches, hills etc. Maintain OPSEC Don’t telegraph movement by breaking down everything in advance, tear down under cammo net, keep quiet about discussing future moves with local nationals. Coordinate water support for showers, laundry. Coordinate for engineer site improvement for drainage, sumps etc for food service, laundry, bath. Hardstands are key hygiene improvements. Coordinate for preventive med to approve issue of water and to advise on sanitation for mortuary affairs, food service, water purification, showers and laundry.

44 Supporting Reconstruction and Stability Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Supporting Reconstruction and Stability Operations Initially Army field services capability used extensively Transition to contractor and/or HNS Possible Joint, Multinational, and Interagency support requirement Assistance given to one faction may effect your dealings with others

45 Supporting Civil Support Operations
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Supporting Civil Support Operations Army may not be lead agent Initially Army field services used extensively Transition to contractor depending on the duration of the operation Possible Joint and Interagency support requirement

46 Questions and Lessons Learned Discussion
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES Let’s Review Questions and Lessons Learned Discussion Terminal Learning Objective: Describe the considerations for field service support. Enabling Learning Objectives: Describe the mission, capabilities, and employment of field services organizations. Identify the categories of field services, the employment of elements providing field service support, and units providing quality of life support. Identify procedures for determining field service support requirements. Identify the mission, capabilities, and employment of personnel service support units found in the combat zone. Describe field service support considerations for offensive, defensive, stability and reconstruction, and civil support operations.

47 QM Field Service Co (Modular)
4/13/2017 7:54 PM FIELD SERVICES QM Field Service Co (Modular) SRC: L000 Mission: To provide DS shower, laundry, and clothing repair (SLCR) support for approximately 21,000 troops on an area basis. Capabilities: (Per Section 1 of TOE) (a) Laundry services totaling 315,000 lbs of laundry per week based on 15 lbs per soldier per week in support of 21,000 troops. (b) Each SLCR section can support 500 troops per day/3500 troops per week. (c) Distribution for individual laundry with organic distribution assets providing 24 hour laundry service. (d) Limited light textile repair. (e) Unit level maintenance on organic equipment. (f) Food service for assigned and attached personnel. (g) Delousing service when deemed necessary by medical authority. Assignment (Echelon): Normally assigned to a CSSB (Corps/DIV). AR , DEC 2002, para 2-1a: - Each quartermaster field service company, modular (QM FSC, M) is capable of operating on a 20-hour day basis and is designed to provide support for 21,000 troops per week. - The quartermaster field service company, direct support (QM FSC, DS) provides tactical field services to divisional and non-divisional troops from the corps forward area to the forward line of troops. The SLCR section teams may be dispersed across the battlefield. The teams are 100 percent mobile, and each SLCR team is capable of relocating every 72 hours. Once deployed, the section is capable of providing showers, laundry, and light textile clothing repairs to supported units. Waste water AR , DEC 2002, para 1–5. Environmental procedures a. CONUS. Wastewater and solid waste shall be disposed of according to Federal, State, and local regulations and requirements. Commanders will coordinate with facilities engineers or environmental officers of their supporting installations to ensure waste water is discharged properly in operational areas. Commanders will obtain all required permits for the disposal of waste water (see AR 200–1 and AR 40–5). Guidelines for the disposal of solid waste are located in AR 420–49. Technical assistance in disposing of waste water and solid waste may be requested from the Commander, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD b. Outside continental United States (OCONUS). OCONUS Commanders shall obtain approval for waste water and solid waste disposal from the environmental agency in the host nation during training and stability exercises. During hostile contingencies, waste disposal guidance shall be provided by the Corps of Engineers.


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