24/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESTLO and ELOsTerminal Learning Objective: Describe the considerations for field service and human resources supportEnabling Learning Objectives:Describe the mission, capabilities, and employment of field services organizationsIdentify the categories of field services, the employment of elements providing field service support, and units providing quality of life supportIdentify procedures for determining field service support requirements and planning considerationsDescribe field service support considerations for offensive, defensive, stability and reconstruction, and civil support operations
3References FIELD SERVICES Modular Force References 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESReferencesModular Force ReferencesFM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team Logistics, 15 March 2005FM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 15 March 2005FM-I , Heavy Brigade Combat Team Combined Arms Battalion, 15 March 2005Army of Excellence ReferencesAR 638-2, Care and Disposition of Remains and Personal Effects, 22 December 2000FM 4-0 (100-10), Combat Service Support, 29 August 2003FM 10-1, Quartermaster Principles, 11 August 94FM 10-23, Basic Doctrine for Army Field Feeding and Class I Operations Management, 18 April 96FM 10-64, Mortuary Affairs Operations, 16 February 1999JTTP 4-06, Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Mortuary Affairs inJoint Operations, 28 August 1996 (www.dtic.mil/doctrine)FM Multi-service Helicopter Slingload Operations, 1 April 2002FM Aerial Delivery in a Theater of Operations, 29 October 2003FM Direct Support Field Service Company Operations, 3 September 2003Also:FM Force Provider Company, 6 October 1999FM General Fabric Repair, 24 May 2000
4Outline What are Field Services Field Feeding 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESOutlineWhat are Field ServicesField FeedingShower, Laundry, and Clothing RepairMortuary AffairsAerial ResupplyPlanners, Managers, and OrganizationsSupporting Offense, Defense, Reconstitution and Stability and Civil Support Operations
5Field Services Include: 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESField ServicesField services are essential to enhance a Soldier's quality of life during operations.Field Services Include:Field FeedingShower, Laundry and Clothing RepairMortuary affairsPreparation for aerial deliveryWater production (covered with fuel instruction)(FM 10-1, Ch 16) TLOA major change is that field services are no longer being classified as either primary or secondary. Instead all field services will receive the same basic priority, leaving the decision as to which is most important to the theater Army commander.Water purification & field feeding are now classified as field services. As shown above, the classification of field services covers multiple and varied services or functions.Related publications include: FM 10-16, Fabric Repair; FM Basic field feeding doctrine; FM 10-52, Water supply; FM 10-63, Handling deceased personnel; FM , Mobile field laundry; FM , Airdrop operations.
7Army Field Feeding Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESArmy Field Feeding OperationsUnit Commanders’ responsibilityStandard is three quality meals/dayRations are packaged as individual or group mealsFeeding schedules are based on established operations orders and timelinesAR , DEC 2002, para 2–4. Field feeding- Unit commanders are responsible for overall field feeding. Soldiers will be provided three quality meals daily. When units deploy under combat conditions or in support of contingency operations, the rations used will be initially meal, ready-to-eat (MREs). As the theater matures, soldiers will be provided the full complement of rations in accordance with METT–TC and as outline in AR 30–21 and FM 10–23. pp2The inclusion of a hot cook-prepared meal in the standard of three quality meals per day is based on units having the required personnel and equipment necessary for implementation.The family of operational rations used to support this standard consists of: individual meals (Meal-Ready-to-Eat Meal, Religious, Kosher/Halal; Meal, Cold Weather/Food packet, Long Range Patrol; along with the emerging First Strike Ration and Compressed Meal) and group meals (Unitized UGR-A and UGR-H&S, along with the emerging Unitized Group Ration-Express (UGR-E)), plus enhancements such as bread, cereal, fruit, and salad and the mandatory supplement of milk to ensure the nutritional adequacy of the group rations.
84/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESField FeedingThe field feeding system assumes CORPS and DIV wide use of the MREThe theater transitions from the MREs to unitized group rations (UGR) after approximately 30 daysUGR-A (fresh foods) during extended deployments of 90+ days21-Day contingency operations (CONOPS) menu when deployed beyond 180 daysFood service support will be required for attached unitsFood preparation is a basic unit function performed by unit food service personnel. It is one of the most important factors in Soldier health, morale, and welfare.Food preparation is a basic unit function performed by unit food service personnel. It is one of the most important factors in Soldier health, morale, and welfare. Virtually every type of unit in the force structure has some organic food service personnel Virtually every type of unit in the force structure has some organic food service personnelDuring extended deployments of 90 days and beyond, the feeding standard is expanded to include the UGR-A Short order supplemental menus.This option provides for easy to prepare breakfast and lunch/dinner short order menus and affords choices in menu selection for the Soldier.The feeding standard applied when deployed beyond 180 days includes incorporation of the Department of the Army (DA) 21-Day contingency operations (CONOPS) menu and requires force provider type kitchen facilities or contractor logistics support only after 30 days.Food service support will be required for attached units.The field feeding system assumes Corps- and DIV-wide use of the MRE for the first several days following deployment. The theater then begins to transition to prepared group feeding rations.The theater initially transitions from the MREs to unitized ground rations (UGR).As the operational situation permits, logisticians attempt to introduce the A-ration (fresh foods) into theater. This requires extensive logistics expansion, since it requires refrigerated storage and distribution equipment and a capability to make or acquire ice for unit storage.Disposing of garbage is important to avoid leaving signature trails and maintain field sanitation standards. See FM 10-1 for more details.The bakery function, previously classified as a field service, is now an integral portion of field feeding. Bread is no longer produced in the AO, except in the field feeding system or through contractor support. Normal Class I supply channels handle pouched bread. The bakery function is no longer a stand-alone field service.
9Field Feeding Corps DIV Containerized Kitchen Assault Kitchen 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESField FeedingSustainmentBaseContainerized KitchenCorpsSUSTXDIVBTBIIIHHCSUSTXBTBIIIHHCAssault KitchenField feeding is located in the headquarters company (HHC) of the BSBThe BTB has its own field feeding section, which can prepare, serve and distribute (via LOGPAC) the full range of operational rations -- METT-TC dependentFSCs provide field feeding to their supported battalionsBSBIIBTBIIIHHCIHHCKitchen Company Level FieldFeeding Enhanced (KCLFF-E)IIIFSCHHC, BSB PROVIDED FIELD FEEDINGFOR THE BSB
10Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESShower, Laundry, and Clothing RepairShowersAR , DEC 2002, para 2-6Showering with warm water and soap at least every seven days reduces and/or prevents body lice infestation and positively influences morale.A minimum of seven minutes should be provided for showering per person.The showers shall be capable of accommodating both males and females separately.Units receiving shower service will provide the necessary security required for their personnel and valuables while showering.LADSThe LADS consists of 2 laundry drums and water-processing equipment within an 8’x8’x20’ ISO frame, a fuel tank, a storage container and a generator mounted on a M871A3 trailer. The LADS provides the capability to wash and dry the laundry of 500 soldiers in the field per 20-hr operating period. It washes the laundry, extracts water and dries the laundry in the same drum. The laundry water is recycled and reused via a distillation process to minimize water consumption and waste water generation.12-Head Shower SystemThe 12-HS consists of 6 2-man shower stalls consisting of fiberglass bases with fabric secured over a framework of aluminum tubing. A combination of hose connections and a pump assembly supply water and provide drainage for the shower facility. Hot water is supplied by the diesel/JP-8 fired M80 water heater. The 12-HS provides a heated shower facility for soldiers in the field. It is capable of supporting min showers per hr.12-Head Shower UnitLAUNDRY ADVANCED SYSTEM (LADS)
11Shower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair (SLCR) 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESShower, Laundry, and Clothing Repair (SLCR)There are no SLCR support assets organic to the HBCTThe QM Field Services Company, DIV/Corps Sustainment Brigades provides tactical SLCR servicesShower and Laundry Goal: Provide weekly shower and launder up to 15 pounds of clothes a weekModular design: 6 SLCR sections each support 3,500 Soldiers (Total of 21,000 Soldiers a week)Must consider the additional water requirement resulting from SLCR use (15-20,000 gal/day)Laundry Advanced System (LADS) uses approximately 500 gal/dayReference: FM 10-1, Ch 19 details of the unit on pg 19-2The Field Svcs Co (FSC), DS (Modular), is the primary provider of tactical showers, laundry, clothing repair, and delousing to forward deployed forces. It is normally assigned to a CSB in a COSCOM (Sustainment BDE, Corps).The Army goal is to provide Soldiers with 2 showers each week. In addition, Soldiers will be provided up to 15 pounds of laundered clothing each week. In this process, Soldiers will receive their clothing back from the tactical laundry within a 24 hour period.The concept of laundry and shower support has been developed around the FSC, DS (M).At level one capability the FSC can support 17,500 Soldiers a week. The FSC normally operates at the tactical level of logistics in the Corps (Corps) forward or Division (Div) area as far forward as METT-T allows.This company is modular by design with a platoon headquarters and five SLCR sections. Each SLCR section can support 3,500 Soldiers a week (500 a day) and may be deployed in support of a brigade-size element. The SLCR section is 100% mobile. When support is completed in one area, a section recovers equipment and moves to the next location.Clothing repair performed by SLCR sections are limited to individual clothing of units being supported with shower and laundry services. Repair is limited. No single repair shall exceed five minutes in duration and no item of clothing will be repaired if total repairs exceed 15 minutes.
13Mortuary Affairs Program 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs ProgramDivided into three distinct sub-programs:Current DeathOperates worldwide in peacetime, may continue in mass fatality events/low intensity conflictProvides mortuary supplies and services for permanent disposition of remainsConcurrent ReturnPreferred method of handling remains during conflictsProvides for search, recovery, evacuation, tentative ID, mortuary services, and shipment to final destinationGraves RegistrationActivated only upon approval of the Geographic Combatant CommanderProvides for search, recovery, tentative ID, and, as a last resort, temporary internment in theaterReferences: FM 63-3, Ch 4; FM 10-1, Ch 18The 3 subprograms are as follows:Current death - Provides mortuary supplies and services for permanent disposition of remains and personal effects of persons for whom the Army is or becomes responsible. Operates around the world in peacetime; may continue in areas of conflict depending on logistical and tactical situation.Concurrent Return - Provides for search, recovery, and evacuation of remains to a mortuary. Provides for the positive identification, embalming, and disposition of remains as directed by the next of kin. It also provides for the handling and disposition of personal effects. Is activated during emergencies or major military operations when conditions and capabilities permit Positive Id is done through the use of DNA.Graves Registration - Provides for search, recovery, initial identification, and evacuation of remains for temporary interment. Provides for care and maintenance of those burial sites. Provides for handling and disposition of personal effects..
14Mortuary Affairs Sub-Programs 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs Sub-ProgramsPlace ofDeathCONUSMortuaryPADDHospitalCurrentDeathLocal Contract for CONUS PersonnelNo PE DepotConcurrentReturnCONUSPOEMortuaryPlace ofDeathCollectionPointTMEPPADDPADD: Person Authorized to Direct DispositionGravesRegistrationPlace ofDeathCollectionPointTemp.IntermentNo Embalming
15Mortuary Affairs Company 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs CompanyCO HQCollectionPlatoonPE DepotPlatoonTheater Evac/Mortuary/Cem PltReceiving SecProcessing SecEvacuation SecStorage SecCollectionSectionDisposition Sec- During temporary interment, 2 theater evac platoons become 2 interment platoons- PE Depot may be detached and employed in theater or at port of entry mortuary
16Mortuary Affairs Collection Company 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs Collection CompanyCollection Platoons will be attached to the DIV Sustainment Brigade.The platoon will attach collection sections to the BSB of each BCT.Each section has refrigeration capability.Each section capable of processing up to 20 remains per day.Source: MA School POI lesson: “A-5 Force Structure .PPT”, SEP 2005Currently 2 Collection companies on active duty: 54th and 111th (forming now). Both at Fort Lee.The 311 MA Collection company stationed in Puerto Rico is RC.The 248the MA Company (EAC) is also RC in Puerto Rico.COLL PLTMAINRECEIVINGSHIPPINGFORWARDCOLL SECCO HQ
17Support from a Mortuary Affairs Team 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupport from a Mortuary Affairs TeamThe HBCT is dependent on augmentation for collection, processing and evacuation. The team operates from the BSA and is responsible for processing remains.The team has no transportation capabilities and coordinates with the support operations officer for evacuation back to the theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP).Internal to the HBCT, handling teams are pre-designated at the battalion level and operate in the combat trains.NOTE: It is the maneuver battalion FSC’s responsibility to evacuate remains from the combat trains to the BSAA mortuary affairs team from the sustainmentbrigade provides mortuary affairs support to the HBCT.
18Mortuary Affairs Site Selection 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs Site SelectionAccessible to a good road network (MSR)In close proximity, but not in view of the CSHReasonably removed from Class I/Water pointAccessible to rotary wing aircraft (LZ)Concealed from casual viewSanitation facilities availableSECURETAJI, IRAQELO C Fm 10-64, 2-4Source: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations.ppt”, SEP SLIDE 5
19Forward MA Collection Point 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESForward MA Collection Point1 FWD CP Assigned Per BDE SPT BNAssigned MA Collection Company6 Personnel Per MACP working 2 – 12 Hour ShiftsProcess approximately 20 Remains / 24 HoursRequires Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported UnitEquipment:1 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted1 – 5-Ton Tractor1 – 5-Ton Cargo Truck1 – 400 Gallon Water Trailer2 – TentsSource: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 8MISSION: Conduct limited search and evacuation operations of deceased U.S. Military, certain U.S. civilian and Allied personnel. Receive, inventory, and coordinate evacuation of Personal Effects (PE) with remains.
20Main MA Collection Point 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMain MA Collection Point1 Main CP Assigned per CORPSAssigned from the CORPS MA Collection CompanyRequires Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported UnitMajor Equipment:1 – HMMWV5 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted5 – 5-Ton Tractor2 – 2 1/2 -Ton Cargo Truck2 – R/T ForkliftSource: MA School POI lesson: “B-3 Collection Point Operations .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 9MISSION: Establish, operate, and maintain a CORPS Main Collection Point that receives remains and Personal Effects (PE) from the Forward Collection Points.
21Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP) 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESTheater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP)2 Platoons from the QM MA CO (EAC)Assigned to a Theater Sustainment CommandEach Platoon can Process 250 Remains / 24 HoursRequires UCMJ, Life Support, Medical and Maintenance Support from Supported UnitMajor Equipment (Dependent upon Theater Resources):2 – HMMWV3 – 20’ Refrigeration Van, Trailer Mounted3 – 5-Ton Tractor2 – 2 1/2 -Ton Cargo Truck (LMTV)1 – R/T Forklift1 – 400 Gallon Water TrailerTMEPSource: MA School POI lesson: “C-1 TMEP .ppt”, SEP SLIDE 3MISSION: Establish, operate, and maintain a Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (Concurrent Return) or Temporary Interment sites in Theater (Graves Registration).
22Mortuary Affairs NCO, SPO Supply and Services Cell 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs NCO, SPO Supply and Services CellAdvises the BSB commanderCoordinates MA operationsTrains the brigade and BSB units and personnelEstablishes the mortuary affairs collection point in the BSACoordinates for augmentationMaintains filesPlans and coordinates escort ofremainsMA NCO duties: The MA NCO coordinates all MA support within the brigade area.Advises the BSB commander on MA issues.Coordinates MA operations in the brigade AO.Trains the brigade and BSB units and personnel on performing search and recovery, tentative identification, and evacuation of remains to the mortuary affairs collection point (MACP).Establishes the mortuary affairs collection point in the BSA.Coordinates with the sustainment brigade for augmentation by a MA collection platoon.Advises on emergency burial policy and the security and disposition of remains and personal effects.Plans and coordinates escort of remains.Maintains files, reports, and a situation map on MA support activities.
23Mortuary Affairs Support Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs Support OperationsAt unit level, remains are tentatively identified and evacuated to the Battalion Aid Station for medical verificationUnit commanders are responsible for initial search, recovery, identification, and evacuation of remains to the MACP. (The FSC distribution platoon evacuates remains to the BCT MACP.)The sustainment BDE MA Co deploys a MA platoon forward to the DIV. The MA platoon then sends a MA collection section to the BSB.The MACP provides temporary storage of remains and personal effects (PE) before evacuating the remains and their accompanying PE to a MACP sustainment BDE or the TMEP.AR , DEC 2002, para 2-9Commanders are responsible for initial search and recovery.A mortuary affairs unit assigned to the DIV supports on an area basis. This unit operates collection points throughout the DIV and brigade areas. These points receive remains from units, assist and conduct search and recovery operations, and arrange for the evacuation of remains to a mortuary or temporary burial site.Mortuary affairs units operate theater collection points, evacuation points, and personal effects depots.Mortuary affairs personnel initially process remains in theater. Then, they arrange to evacuate remains and personal effects, usually by air, to a CONUS POD mortuary.A DIV MA collection team augmented to the HBCT will establish a collection point in the vicinity of the BSB. The MA team is capable of processing 20 remains and associated personal effects per day
24Mortuary Affairs Evacuation 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs EvacuationVehicles bringing supplies (except Class I) to the BSA evacuate remains from the BSA collection point as a backhaul mission or by throughput to the sustainment brigade collection companyEvacuation of remains from the HBCT to DIV mortuary affairs collection point or theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP)The recommended method of evacuation of remains is air evacuation (fixed or rotary wing) in coordination with the BSB support operations and DIV G3 air.Applying the throughput concept, remains may be evacuated directly to the rear for shipment to the port of embarkation (POE) mortuary.The HBCT is dependent on augmentation for collection, processing and evacuation.A mortuary affairs team, from the theater sustainment brigade provides mortuary services support to the HBCT. The team operates from the BSA and is responsible for processing remains. The team has no transportation capabilities and coordinates with the support operations officer for evacuation back to the theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP).Internal to the HBCT, handling teams are pre-designated at the battalion level and operate in the combat trains.It is the battalion’s responsibility to evacuate remains from the combat trains to the BSA..For example, Bravo company’s remains are picked up by FSC trucks during LOGPAC operations and returned to the CABSA. BSB vehicles retrograde the remains to the BSA MA collection point during unit distribution resupply, The BSB supply and services cell coordinates (with SUS BDE or G3 Air) for further retrograde of remains to the DIV or CORPS or Army collection points or the theater mortuary affairs evacuation point (TMEP).
25Mortuary Affairs Remains Flow 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMortuary Affairs Remains FlowCONUSSustainmentBaseXXCorpsTSCSUSTXDIVMATMEPSUSTXMAFM A mortuary affairs (MA) company will be dedicated to each UE to provide for limited search and recovery, identification, disposition, and respectful handling of human remains. The MA team provided to the HBCT will establish a collection point in the vicinity of the BSB and will be capable of processing 20 remains per day. This team will also train HBCT personnel on the proper handling and evacuation of remains. Evacuation of remains from forward areas to the collection point will remain a unit responsibility. Evacuation of remains from the HBCT to UE facilities will occur during MSO operations (METT-TC dependent).TMEP capability typically found in the MA CO EAC. May be necessary to have EAC PLT augmentation at the Corps level to run TMEP.Major changes in MA doctrine upcoming:FM Draft due out, will go to one standard MA CO in FY08111th MA Co will activate in OCT 05 at Fort LeeMA Collection Platoons will have separate SRCs for modular employmentMain Collection Platoon of MA Collection company will have initial responsibility of running TMEP and MADCP until RC MA Company arrives in theaterREF processing in OIF:It takes about hours in Theater (i.e killed at Mosul, processed at Mosul Mortuary Affairs Collection Point (MACP), then to the Theater Mortuary Evacuation Point (TMEP) in Kuwait. From there it depends on a flight, but usually no longer then 12 hours. At the Port of Entry Mortuary (Dover) is the biggest factor. It depends how long it takes to coordinate with family and funeral home, but they try for anywhere from 3 to 8 days. So, it takes usually about 5 to 10 days from death to a family’s funeral home. There can be exceptions (i.e. if the body requires a lot preparation, or the family takes it’s time making a decision) that can cause it to take much longer. CPT Rod W. Secor, S3, 240th BN, Fort Lee, VAComm: , Cell:AIRBSBIIMAIIIFSC
26OIF & OEF MA Locations Mosul Tikrit Balad Baghdad Baghram Al Asad 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESOIF & OEF MA LocationsBaghdadTikritMosulCamp WolfBaladAl AsadTMEPBaghramKandahar
28Aerial Resupply FIELD SERVICES 4/13/2017 7:54 PM AR , DEC 2002, para 2-10Airdrop becomes more important as the combat intensity increases and the depth of the battlefield extends.The force structure required is highly specialized and, when possible, should be in place, ready to provide this critical field service when required.The sling load method allows for the rapid movement of heavy, outsized equipment, or emergency supplies directly to the user.Sling loading allows the use of multiple flight routes and landing sites to enhance the sustainability and security of ground units and provide greater movement flexibility for the ground commander to accomplish the tactical mission.
29Aerial Resupply Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESAerial Resupply OperationsThe HBCT has no aerial delivery capabilityAir Force airlift and Army aviation assets may supplement the HBCT’s transportation capabilityWhen supply routes become severely disrupted, the use of aerial delivery may be necessaryUnits must be prepared to receive both air-dropped and sling-loaded suppliesBSB SPO must coordinate for the backhaul for aerial delivery equipment (sling sets, parachutes, platforms, etc.)Reference: FM 10-1, Ch 17Airdrop is a field service that may be required on the battlefield at the onset of hostilities.There is no airdrop capability in the DIVEach Corps requires one or more airdrop support units which provide(s) airdrop resupply support to all elements of the Corps.Airdrop is a vital link in the distribution system. It extends ALOC and serves as a combat multiplier. It provides the flexibility required of the supply & distribution system.There are two types of request procedures---preplanned & immediate. Preplanned requirements are based on known projected requirements & can be programmed in advance(S4/G4 channels). Immediate requests stem from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. These requests flow through the Army operational channels (S3/G3) to the validating authority.Planning factors are found in FM /2. Planning factors help determine force structure, aircraft requirements, airdrop work load, air delivery equipment stockage levels, and equip recovery rates. Many airdrop support units are in force compositions other than the active Army (COMPO 2,3, or 4). Airdrop support units may not always be available; therefore, planners should consider alternatives. One alternative is to prerig critical supplies/equip for airdrop.Certain contingencies may require airdrop resupply support from the beginning of hostilities. However, the requisite airdrop support structure is not likely to be in place due to deployment priorities. The operational-level commander should consider having a portion of the supporting airdrop supply company deploy to the depot responsible for supply support to the contingency area.If forces require airdrop resupply before deploying the airdrop support units to the theater, the unit may rig supplies for airdrop at the depot. Forces then fly supplies directly to the airdrop location. This requires adaptation of the request procedures outlined in FMFMI The following discussion on aerial delivery for resupply operations discusses four methodologies to affect these operations: aerial delivery, precision aerial delivery, slingload delivery or airdrop delivery.Methods of Aerial Delivery:Airdrop OperationsSling load OperationsAirland Operations
30Methods of Aerial Resupply 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESMethods of Aerial ResupplyAIRDROP OPERATIONSSLINGLOAD OPERATIONSAIRLAND OPERATIONS
31Airdrop Operations Airdrop Operations FIELD SERVICES 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESAirdrop OperationsAirdrop OperationsHigh Velocity - Can be used to drop subsistence, packaged POL and ammunition. Parachute has enough drag to hold the load in an upright position. Rate of descent is feet per second.Low Velocity - Used for fragile material such as vehicles or artillery pieces. Items are rigged on a airdrop platform or in an airdrop container. Rate of descent is approximately 28 feet per second.Free Drop - Used to drop barrier material, PSYOPS material, rations or other non-breakable items. No parachute or retarding device is used for free drop. Rate of descent for free drop is 130 to 150 feet per second.
324/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESAirland OperationsRequires an operational and secure airfield/field landing strip, material handling equipment (MHE) and fuel storage containers when using “Bladder Birds.”Can load L pallets on a C130, L pallets on a C141, and L pallets on a C17.C130 “Bladder Birds” can provide 6,000 gallons of fuel (2,400 peacetime, and C141 “Bladder Birds” can provide 9,000 gallons
33Slingload Operations Relies on recovery of assets 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSlingload OperationsRelies on recovery of assetsPinpoint supplies on the groundVersatile, priorities can be shifted easilyLoad depends on the aircraft(CH-47 vs. UH-60)Maximize backhaulUses Army aviation assetsMust have trained personnelSLICC, Pathfinder, Air AssaultSLICC Sling Load Inspection Certification Course. A five-day course conducted as a resident course at Fort Lee, and as a mobile training course at various host installations. Trains personnel from all services to sling load inspectors.Pathfinder: A three week course. Trains personnel to establish and operate a helicopter landing zone (LZ), parachute dropzone (DZ), conduct slingload operations, and provide air traffic control. https://www.infantry.army.mil/airborne/pathfinder/admin.htmAir Assault: A 10 ½ day course taught in various location including Fort Campbell, Hawaii, and Germany. Trains personnel in air assault operations including: slingload and pathfinder.
34Aerial Resupply Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESAerial Resupply OperationsAdvantages include:Permitting throughput of supplies from Sustainment Brigades to using units, even if the unit is in an unreachable areaReduces the need for forward airfields or landing zonesPermits greater dispersion of ground tactical forcesReduces delivery time (travel time only)Provides a shorter turnaround time than ground combat logistics patrolsDisadvantages include:Vulnerability to enemy aircraft & ground fireFewer supplies & equipment that can be carriedThe need for specialty trained rigging and drop zone personnelThe impact of adverse weather on delivery capabilities and accuracyThe impact of aircraft availability and operational readiness ratesReference: FM 10-1 pg 17-2
35Aerial Resupply Request Procedures (Army Air) 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESAerial Resupply Request Procedures (Army Air)XXCorpsSustainmentBaseTSCDIVCABXXXX59CorpsCABXXXG3SUSTX4DIVG3SUSTX3AIR1. Requirements determination at the Battalion level (usually via LOGSTAT).2. Brigade S4 consolidates requirements passes to BSB SPO. SPO/BDE S4 determine need for aerial resupply to fill BDE requirements and pass to the BDE S3/BAE.3. BDE S3/BAE validates and passes to the DIV G3 (air). G3 validates requirements, looks at available aircraft/aircrew, and passes the mission off to either the Aviation Brigade S3 or higher to the Corps G3 (air)4. Once the Avn BDE S3 receives the mission, they will task a subordinate Bn to execute.5. If the Avn BDE supporting the DIV is not capable of supporting the mission the requirement is passed higher to the Corps G3 (air).6. The Corps G3 can commit the assets of the Avn BDE supporting the Corps. Once the Avn BDE receives the mission they will task a subordinate Bn to execute.FMIGENERALArmy aviation is an extension of ground maneuver providing an aerial dimension to the DIV or BCT. Army aviation performs combat, combat support (CS), and CSS missions within all the BOS. Aviation is ideal for air movement and aerial sustainment in support of special operations, light, airborne, air assault, and heavy forces.Aviation performs crucial tasks in providing Aerial Sustainment Support to the force as a whole. Current operations are sustained through a globally networked, distribution based logistics system and reach-back capabilities. Increased operational distances, non-secure LOCs and a non-contiguous battlespace, result in greater reliance on aerial distribution platforms as a means of providing responsive and agile support from multiple locations within the theater.Lift aviation forces conduct air assaults, team insertion/extraction, mine dispensing, C2, air movement, and aerial sustainment to accelerate the tempo of ground combat elements.6-78 FMI April 2005Enhanced lift capabilities of multi-function aviation brigades increases the tonnage of aerial sustainment supplies, which means aerial sustainment can supply a larger percentage of fuel, ammunition, and other needs to supplement ground transport.AERIAL SUSTAINMENTAerial sustainment is the movement of equipment, material, supplies, and personnel by utility, heavy, and fixed-wing assets for operations other than air assault and combat support. Aviation provides air movement of personnel, equipment, ammunition, water, parts and supplies; and performs CASEVAC and aviation maintenance. These air movements are considered CSS missions because aviation forces are not task-organized with combined arms forces, nor do they move combat or combat support forces or assets whose primary mission is to engage and destroy enemy forces.Heavy BCTs and Infantry BCTs have significantly different needs and requirements. Aerial sustainment through direct support (DS) and general support (GS) is critical for light, airborne, and air assault forces. Resupply of key ammunition and parts is critical for heavy brigade combat teams (BCT).Aerial sustainment of the modular force is achieved through DS and GS on an anticipatory preplanned basis, not attachment to the support command structure. The number and variety of missions, coupled with the limited lift assets, necessitates that command, not CSS channels, initiate air movement and aerial sustainment taskings. Mission requests go through command channels for allocation of support based on the commander’s and G3’s priorities. Although aircraft may provide a level of DS and GS support to a particular aerial sustainment mission, these aircraft are not transportation assets, and do not fall under CSS unit control. The myriad of combat and combat support missions these aircraft must perform with limited assets prohibits organic or attached support as a transportation asset.Aviation taskings through command channels allow rapid transition between combat, CS, and CSS missions. This process also keeps aircrews better informed, and permits simultaneous execution of all three mission types with the same set of aircraft.The tempo of resupply operations can dramatically impact combat operations. It is essential that aircraft utilization be optimized. The goal is to maximize the number of turns during each shift. This can only be accomplished through coordination and training.FMI Brigade Aviation Element. the BAE is composed of a major, a captain, a senior warrant officer and three enlisted men.1-48. The BAE provides: Integration and synchronization of aviation into the BCT commander’s scheme of maneuver. Focus on incorporating aviation into the commander’s plan. Coordinates directly with aviation brigade(s). Close integration/ synchronization with the air liaison officer (ALO) and fire support officer (FSO). Employment advice and planning for the reconnaissance and attack elements, assault helicopters, airborne command and control assets, heavy helicopters, medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Army airspace command and control (A2C2) planning, coordination, and airspace deconfliction for combined arms, joint, interagency and multi-national (JIM) operations.BSA2BSBIIXBDE S4IIBDE S3BAEIFSC1
36Planning Considerations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESPlanning ConsiderationsReplacement of authorized personnel, equipment and suppliesRequirements determinationStatus of support sitesSupport relationshipsSite locationsBased on: Headcount, Personnel estimate, Commanders guidanceHow many showers, meals, do you need? Do you need airdrop? What supplies are consumed by a TWPs? Do I want the showers next to the trash point? Quartermaster DIV personnel in a variety of units perform field service functions.During combat operations, military personnel provide most of the field service support in forward areas, with host nation support (HNS) and contractors providing a limited amount.Conversely, HNS and contractors provide much of the support in rear areas. HNS, Kellogg, Brown and Root, etcDuring stability or support operations, field service support at all levels may come from a variety of sources 92A (Usually cross trained if other MOSs unavailable)92G (Food Service)92M (Mortuary Affairs)92R (Parachute Rigger)92S (Shower, laundry and textile repair)92W (Water Purification)
37Field Service Branch, Support Operations Sustainment Brigade 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESField Service Branch, Support Operations Sustainment BrigadeCSSAMOCONTRACTINGHN SUPPORTFIELD SVCSMEDICALSERVICES DIVISIONKEYTASKSO MORTUARY AFFAIRS OFF A4VCW3 SR AIRDROP SYS TECH AE FIELD SVCS NCO S40E MORTUARY AFFAIRS NCO M30E6 FIELD SVCS NCO S30Exercises staff supervisionDevelopment field services policies and programsConduct Combat Service Support (CSS) planning for field svc’s Conducts ongoing analysis of services capabilities and requirements in coordination with the Supply DivisionAssists in determining appropriate positioning of field services assets to support customer units for logistic tracking
38Sustainment Brigade SUS BTB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB CSSB HHC HHC 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSustainment BrigadeSUSAssignedAttachedBTBCSSBMED BDECSSBCSSBCSSBCSSBCSSBHHCCSSBAssignedAttached(FMI ) ELO 5Sustainment Brigade DIV may have field services attached.Field service companies are normally found in the Corps and higherSustainment for the DIV is supported and controlled by the Sustainment Command (Theater) (TSC) through Sustainment Brigades.These Sustainment Brigades work for the Sustainment Command (Theater) directly (operational logistics), work for a DIV (tactical logistics), or work for another component of the joint force (component logistics).Note that the brigade headquarters of the Sustainment Brigade is the same for any of the missions. The difference is the type and number of subordinate battalions assigned.The brigades are multifunctional combat service support (CSS) organizations, tailored and task organized according to METT-TC.The operational Sustainment Brigade normally remains under the operational control of the TSC, and hence the Corps. The operational Sustainment Brigade normally operates a theater level base in the JOA or on an intermediate staging base (ISB) near the JOA. The operational Sustainment Brigade provides area support to all units in the base, including units deploying or in route to the gaining tactical headquarters. The operational Sustainment Brigade also supports joint, interagency, and multinational forces as directed by the TSC and joint force commander.The tactical Sustainment Brigade is under the operational control of the DIV.Both brigades provide area support; although the specific tasks they are assigned differ.HHCSIGFINHRAMMOTRANSMAINTS&SMission: Plan, coordinate, synchronize, monitor, and control logistics operations within assigned AO. Coordinates Host Nation Support (HNS) and contracting. Provide support to joint, interagency, and multinational forces as directed.
39BSB SPO: Supply and Services Cell 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESBSB SPO: Supply and Services CellKEYTASKSBSB SPOSup & Svc CellMaint CellTrans Mgt CellHHS CellAmmo CellContract CellForecast, coordinate, and monitor the field servicesConduct logistics preparation of the battlefieldProvide technical expertise on field servicesCoordinates the evacuation of remainsSupervises the mortuary affairs (MA) NCO
40Heavy Brigade Combat Team (Organic Log Support) 4/13/2017 7:54 PMHeavy Brigade Combat Team (Organic Log Support)FIELD SERVICESXBTBBSB132FSC(MNV)MAINT...MCS/HQSSECTIONRECOVSECTARMORFMTMECHENGR..DISTROHQSGENSUPPLYWATERCL VFIELDFEEDINGHQFSC(ARS)HHC14381FSC(FIRES)Distro1711371CD LOG CONF DRAFT 12 Sep 05FSC(MNV)Maint230 (x2)77Mission: The FSC is a multifunctional unit organized to perform distribution of all classes of supply, minus medical, to its supported battalion.Med77
414/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupporting Offense, Defense, Reconstruction and Stability and Civil Support Operations
42Supporting Offensive Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupporting Offensive OperationsMost field services suspendedPlan future field service operationsIntegrate field service operations with the tactical planPlan triggers for activating/deactivating pointsCoordinate the locations, displacements, and routes of sustainmentUse field service assets to overcome other CSS shortfallsMortuary affairs is (mostly evacuation) is the exception.Plan field service operations based on anticipated support needs of each subordinate unit.Integrate field service operations with the scheme of maneuver to ensure proper timing and to avoid interfering with likely or planned maneuver actions.Plan locations of field service operations in covered and concealed locationsPlan triggers for activating and deactivating collection points based on the HBCT’s movement and execution.Coordinate the locations, displacements, and routes of sustainment assets and units to maintain responsive support.Consider using field service equipment to cover other shortfalls, use of SLCR for chem/decon, use of water assets for chem/decon, engineer operations, use of those field service MOSs to assist in security or other tasks.
43Supporting Defensive Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupporting Defensive OperationsAvoid patternsLocation of field service sites and unitsMovementTerrainPeriodically move field service unitsCover and concealmentEngineer and Medical support may be requiredAvoid setting patterns of support to decrease the vulnerability of enemy interdiction, vary LOGPAC times, meetings, etc..Consider conducting LOGPACs and other routine logistics activities during limited visibility.Position the BSA and sustainment units as far to the rear as possible, but close enough to be responsive to maneuver units Avoid positioning sustainment sites and units along enemy ground/air avenues of approach or in the vicinity of templated artillery, NBC, or situational obstacle strikes. Requires coordination with S2 and S3Coordinate movement and terrain requirements with maneuver plans and positioning of other units such as artillery. S3 controls maneuver, S4 controls movement; SPO recommends terrain, S3 controls it.Periodically move sustainment units based on the threat level to decrease their vulnerability of detection. Generally every 72 hoursMaximize the use of cover and concealment, dispersion, and protection afforded by the terrain. Trees, camoflague, wadis, ditches, hills etc.Maintain OPSEC Don’t telegraph movement by breaking down everything in advance, tear down under cammo net, keep quiet about discussing future moves with local nationals.Coordinate water support for showers, laundry. Coordinate for engineer site improvement for drainage, sumps etc for food service, laundry, bath. Hardstands are key hygiene improvements. Coordinate for preventive med to approve issue of water and to advise on sanitation for mortuary affairs, food service, water purification, showers and laundry.
44Supporting Reconstruction and Stability Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupporting Reconstruction and Stability OperationsInitially Army field services capability used extensivelyTransition to contractor and/or HNSPossible Joint, Multinational, and Interagency support requirementAssistance given to one faction may effect your dealings with others
45Supporting Civil Support Operations 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESSupporting Civil Support OperationsArmy may not be lead agentInitially Army field services used extensivelyTransition to contractor depending on the duration of the operationPossible Joint and Interagency support requirement
46Questions and Lessons Learned Discussion 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESLet’s ReviewQuestionsand Lessons LearnedDiscussionTerminal Learning Objective: Describe the considerations for field service support.Enabling Learning Objectives:Describe the mission, capabilities, and employment of field services organizations.Identify the categories of field services, the employment of elements providing field service support, and units providing quality of life support.Identify procedures for determining field service support requirements.Identify the mission, capabilities, and employment of personnel service support units found in the combat zone.Describe field service support considerations for offensive, defensive, stability and reconstruction, and civil support operations.
47QM Field Service Co (Modular) 4/13/2017 7:54 PMFIELD SERVICESQM Field Service Co (Modular)SRC: L000Mission: To provide DS shower, laundry, and clothing repair (SLCR) support for approximately 21,000 troops on an area basis.Capabilities: (Per Section 1 of TOE)(a) Laundry services totaling 315,000 lbs of laundry per week based on 15 lbs per soldier per week in support of 21,000 troops.(b) Each SLCR section can support 500 troops per day/3500 troops per week.(c) Distribution for individual laundry with organic distribution assets providing 24 hour laundry service.(d) Limited light textile repair.(e) Unit level maintenance on organic equipment.(f) Food service for assigned and attached personnel.(g) Delousing service when deemed necessary by medical authority.Assignment (Echelon): Normally assigned to a CSSB (Corps/DIV).AR , DEC 2002, para 2-1a:- Each quartermaster field service company, modular (QM FSC, M) is capable of operating on a 20-hour day basis and is designed to provide support for 21,000 troops per week.- The quartermaster field service company, direct support (QM FSC, DS) provides tactical field services to divisional and non-divisional troops from the corps forward area to the forward line of troops. The SLCR section teams may be dispersed across the battlefield. The teams are 100 percent mobile, and each SLCR team iscapable of relocating every 72 hours. Once deployed, the section is capable of providing showers, laundry, and light textile clothing repairs to supported units.Waste waterAR , DEC 2002, para 1–5. Environmental proceduresa. CONUS. Wastewater and solid waste shall be disposed of according to Federal, State, and local regulations andrequirements. Commanders will coordinate with facilities engineers or environmental officers of their supportinginstallations to ensure waste water is discharged properly in operational areas. Commanders will obtain all requiredpermits for the disposal of waste water (see AR 200–1 and AR 40–5). Guidelines for the disposal of solid waste arelocated in AR 420–49. Technical assistance in disposing of waste water and solid waste may be requested from theCommander, U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MDb. Outside continental United States (OCONUS). OCONUS Commanders shall obtain approval for waste water andsolid waste disposal from the environmental agency in the host nation during training and stability exercises. Duringhostile contingencies, waste disposal guidance shall be provided by the Corps of Engineers.