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The Shell Method Volumes by Cylindrical Shells By Christine Li, Per. 4

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Do not sum up the volumes of the washers Instead of summing the volumes of washers you sum up the volumes of shells Conceptually the same as the washer method

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Example 1 Question: Find the volume of the solid obtained by rotating about the y-axis the region bounded by y = x 2 and between x = 1 and x = 2

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First consider the small vertical strip below with width dx And then revolve it around the y-axis to get As you can see, the shape that the strip sweeps out resembles a shell Example 1

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The next step is to calculate the volume of this single shell. Since the thickness is dx, all you need is to calculate the surface area of the shell volume = thickness x surface area Example 1

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Example 1: Surface Area of a Shell First, cut the shell and unroll it, and get the following picture h Since (2pi)r is the length, h is the width, and dx is the depth, the volume of this shell is (2pi)rh dx.

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Example 1: But what are r and h? Since the height of the strip is the distance from the x-axis to the curve (y = x 2 ) we see that h = x 2 The volume of a single shell is (2pi)x 3 dx h We see that the distance from the y-axis to the strip is x Therefore, r = x

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Example 1: Approximating the volume Now approximate the volume of the solid of revolution by summing the volumes of all the shells from x = 1 to x = 2 We then take the limit as the number of shells tends to infinity to find the volume of the solid of revolution

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The limit converges to the following integral 2 1 2pi x 3 dx = (15pi)/2 In general, we have the following formula for the volume of a solid of revolution using the shell method : b a (2pi)rh dx Where r is the radius of the shell, h is the height of the shell and a and b are the bounds on the domain of x. Example 1: Final Step

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Question: Find the volume of the solid of revolution when the region below y = x + 1 and between x = 0 and x = 2 is revolved about the line x = 3 Example 2 revolved around x = 3 and get

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Example 2: But what are r and h? Here we take a vertical strip with thickness dx to get a shell The radius is the distance from the curve ( y = x + 1 ) to the line x = 3 The radius is r = 3 - x (remember the radius has to be in terms of the variable x). The height is the distance from the x-axis to the curve ( y = x + 1 ) Since y = x + 1, the height of the strip is h = x + 1

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Example 2: Final Step Use the shell method formula and remember that the area is bounded between x = 0 and x = 2 Therefore, set 0 to be the lower limit, and 2 as the upper limit. (2pi)(3 - x)(x + 1) dx 2 0 =(44pi)/3

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7.4 Day 2 Surface Area Greg Kelly, Hanford High School, Richland, Washington(Photo not taken by Vickie Kelly)

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