Presentation on theme: "Ilinca Julian, Heikki Ojanen, Juha - Matti Lukkari."— Presentation transcript:
Ilinca Julian, Heikki Ojanen, Juha - Matti Lukkari
Higher and steadier wind speeds. Usually installations unvisible from land. Their noise cannot be heard from land. More demanding environment than for onshore. More expensive maintenance costs.
Rotor diameter 90 m now commonplace. Designed to withstand vertical wind gradient and also athmospheric turbulance.
Monopile, for < 20 m depth Jacket, used already in oil industry Tripod, for < 20 m depth Tripile, up to 50 m depth Gravity, been used up to 10 m depth Floating, for deep waters At least monopile and tripod cannot be used on a stony sea bed.
Has effect on project performance, size and cost Legal, regulatory and geophysical reasons Spacing between turbines aligned in a row is on the order of 5 to 10 rotor diameters, and spacing between rows is between 7 and 12 rotor diameters.
Affects on organisms and habitats. Data gathering far from simple. Many planned wind farms close to fishery sites in North Sea.
Collection system Medium voltage grid within the wind farm Connects the wind turbines to the offshore substation Offshore substation Transmission system Between the offshore and onshore substations High voltage AC or DC
Usually a string cluster configuration Several turbines in every string Each WT with a step-up transformer Generation voltage 690V Grid voltage typically around 30kV The grid must carry all the generated power in the string Limited by the size of the step-up transformers
Lines of the collection system meet here Substation based on a platform Power transformer Rated power up to several hundred MVA Limited by the weight of the transformer Steps up the voltage to a transmission voltage Power electronics (In case of a HVDC link) Rectifier and filter units
Distance to the on-shore substation Reactive losses (AC) vs resistive losses (DC) d < 50km AC 50km < d < 80km AC or DC d > 80km DC HVDC technology more expensive Newer technology Requires more components & space
The cost of cable connection from the farm to the onshore grid. Foundations costs. Operation and maintenance costs. Protection from corrosion due to saltwater.
Competition 2012 work was carried out on 13 wind farms. Development growing and encouraged Government support Off-Shore wind developers’ share of grid connected capacity from 1 st January to June 30 th. Source: EWEA
Initiative to build larger turbines. Currently demand outstrips supply for the significant global requirements. Full capacity for a larger fraction of the year. Price of power.
Solid and continues to grow Trust -Suitable funding structures -non-resource financing
Capital costs, maintenance costs and operation costs Annual Cost leveled costs are expected to decrease Source. C: Howland, Caitlin M., "The Economics of Offshore Wind Energy" (2012). Honors College. Paper 60.
High and predicted to increase Macroeconomic reasons Supply and Demand! Forecasting improvement Competition
Turbines contribute most to the cost Materials Costs of different base structures have the second largest impact on the finance Cost efficiency may be grater in deep water farms stable energy production