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Presentation on theme: "OFFSHORE RENEWABLE PLANT HVDC POWER COLLECTOR AND DISTRIBUTOR"— Presentation transcript:

EWEA 2013 February, 2013, Vienna, Austria OFFSHORE RENEWABLE PLANT HVDC POWER COLLECTOR AND DISTRIBUTOR National Renewable Energy Centre Chong Ng, Principal Engineer – Reliability & Validation Paul McKeever, R&D Manager

2 Narec – Created by Government to stimulate the RE industry, A Controlled and Independent Testing Environment Existing 50m blade test Still water tank Wave flume Simulated seabed Wind turbine training tower Electrical and materials laboratories New 3MW tidal turbine drive train Offshore anemometry hub 100m blade test 15MW wind turbine drive train 99.9MW offshore wind demonstration site /14

3 Presentation Contents
Technical Paper Background Existing Systems HVAC transmission systems HVDC systems Proposed HVDC System Selected Challenges Conclusions Next Steps

4 Technical Paper Background
UK requires offshore wind to meet its renewable energy generation targets (2020, 2030, 2050…) – UK Energy Bill … by 2020, 30% from Renewable Energy Likely to involve larger turbines (10MW? 20MW?) – FP6 UpWind Project Offshore plant would benefit from an appropriate power collection, transmission and distribution technology HVDC potentially provides better efficiency, particularly over longer distances Benefits from power semiconductor and copper cost trends

5 HVAC Transmission Systems
Commonly used in many offshore wind farms Can suffer from excessive reactive current Increases cable losses Reduces power transfer capability Reactive power compensation required (extra equipment) Can suffer from high line losses and excessive voltage drops Extra cables required Inter-dependant characteristics need careful consideration Transmission voltage level, cable capacitance and charging currents…

6 Existing HVDC Systems Modern HVDC systems generally have advantages such as: Lower transmission losses Fully controllable power flow No reactive power generation or absorption (‘cable only’ connections) Reduce/eliminate AC harmonic filter with the latest multilevel converter technologies (e.g. MMC HVDC) HVDC transmission systems can be categorised, by the converters used, into three categories: Line-commutated Converters (LCC), Capacitor Commutated Converters (CCC) and Voltage Source Converters (VSC) as illustrated below Point to point HVDC power transmission – Wind Farm Inter-array? What do we want? A dedicated high efficiency, robust, flexible and low cost power collection, transmission and distribution technology for use within the wind farm too

7 Proposed HVDC System HVDC power transmission from the point of generation Reduce losses and components (i.e. make use of Turbine MV converter and availability of HVDC gird) Multi-terminal HVDC system Increase availability Offers flexibility and redundancy Reduce cost Removal of/minimise offshore substation Reduced cable losses (HV operation)

8 Proposed HVDC System Hybrid HVDC Transformer (figure shows simplified circuit): Steps up MVDC to HVDC Reduced voltage stress on primary side and current stress on secondary side allows use of “off the shelf” force commutation devices Uses magnetic transformer to avoid high conversion ratio Potential to require less power capability from switches (30%) when compared with conventional 2-level 3-phase HVDC converter Many potential challenges that need full investigation (e.g. switching control, network stability, economic impact, protection and isolation…)

9 Proposed HVDC System Switching device comparison:
Proposed Hybrid HVDC Transformer vs. conventional HVDC converter (3-phase 2-level topology) Assumptions n = number of series connected power switching devices in half of the bridge arm 6.5kV rated switching devices VSC-based HVDC converters use 3-phase, 2 (or multi) level converter topology Assumes 2 devices in series is sufficient to withstand the MV voltage stress 150kVdc example HVDC side needs n >= 30 devices in series For conventional VSC-based HVDC systems 6n >= 180 devices For hybrid HVDC transformer 4n + 8 >= 128 devices 29% saving in power semiconductors used

10 Selected Challenges The time to implement
Dependent on development/readiness of the offshore wind industry Managing multi-vendor solutions Will this be a problem? Practical implementation (i.e. is it realistic?) Needs further investigation; this is still a concept Will the subsea power cable size increase with no centralised collector? Shouldn’t increase for similar voltage levels; the overall power stays the same Would a platform still be required as a maintenance hub? A mobile platform could be used for this purpose Is there an operational impact? Turbine operation should be unaffected System optimum operation and control needs developing

11 Conclusions Potential advantages for offshore wind farm applications
An alternative to AC and point to point HVDC transmission topologies Suitable installation in every single power source Increases flexibility and redundancy of the entire HVDC system Positive impact on wind farm availability and O&M costs Eliminates/minimises the need for a centralised offshore collection platform Potential lower component count at converter level Modular component sets across the system 100MW power block in centralised system vs. 20 x 5MW power blocks in hybrid HVDC transformer system Increased component count at system level (due to de-centralisation) Balanced by no offshore substation and fewer components, e.g. fewer power semiconductors and filters…

12 Next Steps Investigate, in detail, the feasibility of this HVDC system concept Detailed study of the proposed hybrid HVDC transformer Explore the feasibility of the following advantages: High flexibility leading to ‘independent’ turbines Additional redundancy and high system availability (no centralised substation) High efficiency (power collection and O&M efficiency) Cost reduction potential Installation in individual turbines Optimisation of materials (copper, semiconductor devices…) Investigate the use of SiC switching devices Higher power density and heat tolerance

13 Thank you for listening!
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