# GE1X01 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

## Presentation on theme: "GE1X01 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS"— Presentation transcript:

GE1X01 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

ENGINEERING DRAWING IS THE UNIVERSAL GRAPHIC LANGUAGE OF ENGINEERS
ENGINEERING DRAWING IS THE UNIVERSAL GRAPHIC LANGUAGE OF ENGINEERS. IT IS THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF A REAL THING. IT IS USED TO DRAW, DEVELOP, RECORD AND CONVEY THE IDEAS, FROM ONE TO OTHER. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

METHOD OF DIMENSIONING: METHOD - 1

METHOD OF DIMENSIONING: METHOD - 2

GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

CYCLOID: It is the curve obtained when a fixed point on the circumference of a circle rolls on a plane surface, without slip. This cycloidal profile is used in designing gears tooth profiles used in clocks, conveyor linkages, … INVOLUTE: It is the curve traced by an end of a string when unwound from a circle or a regular polygon. This involute profile is used in designing gear tooth profiles, used in designing the impeller of the centrifugal pumps, … Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

PROJECTIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES

VARIOUS POSITIONS OF A STRAIGHT LINE
The position of a straight line in space can be described with respect to the two reference planes are as follows Line parallel to both the HP and VP. Line parallel to one plane and perpendicular to other. Line parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP. Line parallel to VP and perpendicular to HP. Line parallel to one plane and inclined to other. Line parallel HP and inclined to VP. Line parallel to VP and inclined to HP. Line contained by one or both the planes. Line in HP. Line in VP. Line both in HP and VP. Line inclined to both the planes. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

AB 70 a’ 10 a 20 35 40 Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMS USED IN THE SECTIONS OF SOLIDS
SECTION PLANE: AN IMAGINARY PLANE BY WHICH THE OBJECT IS CUT IS CALLED THE SECTION PLANE. THE LINE TYPE TO REPRESENT THIS SECTION LINE IN THE VIEW IS A THIN CHAIN LINE THICK AT THE ENDS SECTION: THE SURFACE OF THE OBJECT CUT BY THE SECTION PLANE IS CALLED SECTION Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMS USED IN THE SECTIONS OF SOLIDS
NOTE Cutting plane inclined to HP and perpendicular to VP will have VT in the elevation and the top view shows the apparent section. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMS USED IN THE SECTIONS OF SOLIDS
SECTIONAL VIEW: THE PROJECTION OF THE SECTION ALONG WITH THE REMAINING PORTION OF THE OBJECT IS CALLED SECTIONAL VIEW. TRUE SHAPE OF THE SECTION: THE SECTIONAL VIEW OBTAINED ON A PLANE PARALLEL TO THE SECTION PLANE IS CALLED THE TRUE SHAPE OF THE SECTION. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

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DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES

DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES
AN OBJECT CAN BE MADE OUT OF A SHEET METAL. WHEN ALL THE SURFACES OF A SOLID ARE OPENED OUT ON A PLANE, THEN THE PLANAR PROFILE OBTAINED IS CALLED “DEVELOPMENT”. EACH AND EVERY LINE ON THE DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE THE TRUE LENGTH OF THE RESPECTIVE LINE IN THE SURFACE Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES

METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT THE FOLLOWING ARE THE FOUR TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOLIDS PARALLEL LINE METHOD (STRETCH-OUT METHOD) RADIAL METHOD TRIANGULATION METHOD APPROXIMATE METHOD NOTE While developing the solids, the bases / ends of the solid are generally omitted unless they are specifically asked and only the lateral or side faces are developed. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

DEVELOPMENT SURFACES OF SOLIDS WITH SQUARE CUTOUTS

DEVELOPMENT SURFACES OF SOLIDS WITH CYLINDRICAL CUTOUTS

ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS

ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS

TERMS USED IN ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Isometric axes: The three principal axes, which are making 120° with each other are called isometric axes Isometric lines: The lines parallel to any one of the isometric axes are called isometric lines. Non-Isometric lines: The lines that are not parallel to any one of the isometric axes are called non-isometric lines. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMS USED IN ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISO-RIGHT AXIS ISO-TOP PLANE ISO-LEFT AXIS ISO-RIGHT PLANE ISO-TOP AXIS ISO-LEFT PLANE Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMS USED IN ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Isometric planes: the planes containing any two isometric axes or isometric lines are called isometric planes. Non-Isometric Planes: These are the planes that are not parallel to any of the isometric planes. Isometric View: It is the pictorial view showing all the three dimensions of the solid with no reduction in size of the edges. NOTE While drawing the isometric view of an object, only the true lengths should be used. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISOMETRIC PROJECTION AND ISOMETRIC VIEW

TO DRAW A PENTAGON IN ISOMETRIC VIEW

TO DRAW THE ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A CIRCLE BY FOUR CENTRE METHOD

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTIONS
It is a type of pictorial projection of an object, which is capable of giving more realistic appearance of the object. When an object is viewed from a fixed definite position, the representation of the object on a flat plane (called picture plane) as it would appear to the eye is called perspective projection or drawing Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PERSPECTIVE

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PERSPECTIVE
Auxiliary Ground Plane (AGP): It is a horizontal plane placed above the horizon plane. As per the third angle projection the top view of the object is obtained on this plane. Picture Plane (PP): It is the vertical transparent plane perpendicular to the ground plane in which the perspective of the object is obtained. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PERSPECTIVE
Station Point: It is the location of the eye of the observer while viewing the object. Central Plane (CP): It is an imaginary vertical plane perpendicular to both PP and GP that contains the station point. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PERSPECTIVE
Ground Line (GL): It is the line of intersection of the PP with the ground plane. Horizon Line (HL): It is the line of intersection of the PP with the horizon plane. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PERSPECTIVE
Perpendicular Axis (PA): (line of sight or Axis or vision) It is the line drawn through the station point perpendicular to PP. It is contained by the Central Plane. Centre of Vision (C): It is the point of intersection of perpendicular axis with the picture, which lies on horizon line Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

METHODS OF DRAWING PERSPECTIVE VIEWS
The following are the two methods to obtain perspective of an object Visual Ray Method Vanishing Point Method NOTE The edges or planes, which are on PP, will retain its shape and size, even in perspective. NOTE The faces, which are parallel to PP, will have the similar shape of the face in perspective. But the size of it depends on its position with respect to PP. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION BY VISUAL RAY METHOD

PICTORIAL TO ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION & FREE HAND SKETCHING

FREE HAND SKETCHING Free hand sketching is one of the most easier and effective techniques to communicate designs and ideas. The idea pertaining to a new design can be expressed on a paper, without loss of information. Later it can be updated or modified into suitable scale for actual work. It is generally done without the use of any drawing instruments. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

TYPES OF FREEHAND SKETCHES
There are two types of freehand sketches. They are Orthographic sketches / projections 2. Pictorial sketches / projections Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications

DRAWING ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
Sketch the object lines and complete the details in the views and darken the lines which are visible by thick continuous line type and the hidden ones by thick dashed line type. Draw the center mark lines for all the circles using chain line type. Mark the dimensions, notes, … in the orthographic views. Read Engineering Graphics by Dr.M.S.Kumar ; Published by D.D.Publications