Presentation on theme: "Plastics Ashley Morris. What are they ? A synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc Its."— Presentation transcript:
Plastics Ashley Morris
What are they ? A synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc Its cheap, durable, versatile and can be shaped to form whatever the manufacturer needs it to be. Unlike other materials such as glass, the process is faster. Generally speaking it can also be reused and recycled. Plastics can be either found in natural substances or may be man- made. Most of the plastics used today are man-made. Man-made plastics are known as synthetic plastics which is mainly sourced from crude Oil. Natural plastic products occur in such things as animals' horns, animals' milk, insects, plants and trees Why are they so popular? Where do they come from?
Plastic Refinery Process
What are the main types? Plastics can be divided into two main types: 1.Thermoset or thermosetting plastics. Once cooled and hardened, these plastics keep their shapes and cannot return to their original form by re heating. They are hard and durable. Main examples are polyurethanes, polyesters, epoxy resins. 2.Thermoplastics. Less rigid than thermosets, thermoplastics can soften upon heating and return to their original form. They are easily moulded and extruded into films, fibers and packaging. Again the main examples include polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Symbol Abbreviation Attributes and Applications PET Polyethylene terephthalate – (mainly clear/ transparent plastic) Fizzy drink bottles, squash bottles, some shower-gel bottles and some food containers/packaging. HDPE High-density polyethylene – (Mainly opaque plastic) Bottles for milk, some milk bottle tops, some washing-up liquids, and some shampoo bottles. PVC Polyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral water and shampoo. LDPE Low density polyethylene - Carrier bags and bin liners. PP Polypropylene - Margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays. PS Polystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, protective packaging for electronic goods and toys. OTHER Any other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories. - An example is melamine, which is often used in plastic plates and cups.
Name PropertiesApplications and Uses Urea formaldehydeStrong, insulator, brittle, hard, stiff. Electrical fittings. Handles and knobs Polyester resinLiquid raw state, stiff hard, insulator, chemical resistance, brittle without fibre reinforcement. Casting, bonding fibres- glass, Kevlar, carbon fibre. Epoxy resins-trade names include araldite. Good insulator, brittle chemical resistant. adhesives, bonding fibres, encapsulation. Melamine formaldehydeHard, strong, heat resistant.adhesives, bonding fibres, encapsulation.
How do we improve the properties of plastics ? One way to improve the performance characteristics of plastic products is to compound resins with additives and fillers. Additives help fight against factors such as heat, chemicals, or light. There are thousands of additives/fillers on the market today. Below are some of the most common ones used in manufacturing. Antimicrobials: Used to control the build up of bacteria, fungi and algae on the surface of plastic products. A wide range of chemical and natural compounds are used as antimicrobials. An example would be naturally occurring silver ions used in products such as cell phones or organic acids in food- related products. Antioxidants: Used to control the degradation of products due to air exposure. Antistatic: Used to minimize static electricity. These types of additives can be mixed with the resin or applied to the surface of the product. Antistatic additives are common to a wide variety of products ranging from cosmetics to industrial goods to sensitive electronic parts. Electrostatic Induction: Used for the economical and even application of polyurethane paints to consumer goods such as automobiles, bicycles, and others. Fibres: Used to increase strength and stiffness. The most common type of fibres added for strength would be carbon and glass. Glass-reinforced plastic is more commonly known and marketed as fiberglass. Conductive fibres: Used to provide special properties for certain applications. Plasticizers: Added to make products softer and more flexible. Some plasticizers evaporate and tend to concentrate in an enclosed space; the "new car smell" is caused mostly by plasticizers evaporating from the car interior. Lubricants: Used for easier moulding or for increased adhesion and viscosity of the moulded parts. UV stabilizers: Used for the protection of the resin’s mechanical properties by absorbing selective UV rays resulting in less degradation. Fillers: An inexpensive substance such as wood, metal, glass or clay that is added to plastics in very small particles to decrease cost, improve hardness, stiffness, and impact strength. Flame retardants / Smoke suppressants: A variety of chemicals that can be added to resins to eliminate its tendency to burn. For polyethylene and similar resins, chemicals such as antimony trioxide and chlorinated paraffin are useful. Colorants: Used to add colour, special effects, or patterns to plastic products. http://www.blackwellplastics.com/additives.html
Useful Links http://www.bpf.co.uk/Plastipedia/default.aspx http://www.blackwellplastics.com/additives.html http://www.technologystudent.com/joints/joindex.htm 1. Plastics, Fuels and Chemicals from Crude Oil Plastics, Fuels and Chemicals from Crude Oil 2. The Oil Refinery and Distillation Tower 3. The Manufacture and Nature of Plastics 4. Crude Oil to Fuels and Plastics - Summary Diagram 5. Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 6. Properties of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 7. Examination Question - Thermoplastic Elastomers 8. Renewable and Environmentally Friendly Polylactide 9. Polylactide - Life Cycle 10. Polylactide - Examination Question 11. Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET / PETE (Polyester) 12. Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET / PETE - Examination Question 13. Vacuum Forming PETE Packaging - Examination Question 14. Examination Question (Part One) - Injection Moulding HIPS, HDPE, LDPE, PP, Acrylic (PMMA), ABS. 15. Examination Question (Part Two) - Injection Moulding HIPS, HDPE, LDPE, PP, Acrylic (PMMA), ABS. 16. Examination Question - Polypropylene Packaging 17. Low Density Polyethylene Questions 18. LDPE and Extrusion Blow Moulding 19. Extrusion Blow Moulding - Question - 1 20. Extrusion Blow Moulding - Question - 2 20. Further Questions and Answers on Plastics