Plastics in Packaging Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn
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1 Plastics in Packaging Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn ----General Topic Introduction---Introduce Group MembersScott H. BoyleBrian D’AmicoJanine HornMark Przybylski
2 What Will be Discussed Definition of a plastic. Overview of the packaging industry.Why plastics are used in packaging.A detailed look at the different types of plastics used in packaging.How plastics compare to alternative materials.Environmental Impacts
3 What is a Plastic?A plastic is defined as an organic material that has the ability to flow into a desired shape when heat and pressure are applied and to retain that shape when they are withdrawn.Composed primarily of a binder with-PlasticizersFillersPigmentsOther additivesThe binder is the actual polymer – this gives the plastic its main characteristics and usually its name.The plasticizers are added to the binder to increase its flexibility and toughnessFillers are added to improve particular features such as hardness or resistance to shock.Pigments are added to impart various colors.
4 Industry OverviewWorld sales of primary packaging materials estimated to be $434 billion in 2001.Up 12.5% from $385 billion in 1997.World sales of finished packaging materials is estimated to be $800 billion.Four main categories of raw packaging materials:Paper and BoardGlassMetalPlasticOver the past few years, plastic has become increasingly popular.Primary packaging materials are the raw materials and they consist of the four main categories listed below.Finished packaging materials include the value added from conversion, such as printing and whatnot.Talk about percentage breakdown of four categories.
5 Why Plastics? A wide variety of different qualities- Lightweight Rigid vs. FlexibleClear vs. OpaqueLightweightStrongCostShow a rigid plastic vs. a flexible plasticLightweight, toss a bottle in the air.Strong, through it to the groundCost - plastics are low cost – I will talk about this more later in the presentation.
6 Which Plastics are Used? Six resins account for almost 97 percent of all plastic used in packaging.Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – 9%High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – 29%Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – 32%Poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) – 5%Poly-propylene (PP) – 11%Polystyrene (PS) – 11%PET- used mainly in soft-drink bottles, as well as other containers such as cough syrup.HDPE – Used in milk, water, juice, soap and laundry bottles, margarine tubs, yogurt containers, etc.LDPE – Used in film products such as bags, flexible lids, and squeeze bottles.PVC – Water bottles, film for meat packaging, the film for electronics packagingPP – Ketchup bottles, plastic screw tops, opaque maple syrup bottles, etc.PS – usually foamed – coffee cups, meat trays, the “peanuts”
7 Polypropylene Physical Properties Durable High Melting point High elongation300%High Tensile Strength4500 psiHigh Yield Strength4000 psiHigh Melting pointLow DensityLowest density of all plastics used in packaging
8 Why Polypropylene? Practicality Many everyday uses Inexpensive Chemically resistantIdeal for holding hot liquidsStretchy vs. rigidMany everyday usesKetchup bottlesPeanut butter jars
9 Polyvinyl Chloride Need Title Chemically non-reactive Flexible vs. RigidSelf ExtinguishingPlasticized vs. UnplasticizedPlasticized is more flexible
10 Why PVC Versatile Self Extinguishing Many forms Can be machined with standard metal working toolsSelf ExtinguishingUsed to house electrical wiringMany formsSheetTubingPiping
11 Polyvinylidene Dichloride Discovered in 1933Accidental DiscoveryOriginal use was to stop corrosion on airplanesAfter a green color and a pungent smell had been removed it was used for food storage.Most common form of PVDC is Saran Wrap®
12 Why PVDC PVDC is a very effective food preservation method. Co-polymerization used in synthesis creates a very tight molecular chainProvides good barrier against air and moisture.Chemically non-reactiveEnsures that food won’t taste like plastic
13 Plastic vs. The Alternatives Stress Strengths This is not a great method of comparison however. This is mainly a measure of when the material yields. And we know that when glass yields it cracks or shatters and when aluminum yields it crushes, but plastic is so flexible that it just bends with the pressure. This makes plastic very difficult to break even given the above stat.
14 Plastic vs. The Alternatives Incredibly lightweight2 lbs of plastic can deliver 1000 oz. of liquid. To carry the same amount it would take:3 lbs of aluminum8 lbs of steel27 lbs of glassCompared to glass, plastic drink bottles allow a distribution truck to carry up to 63% more drink and 83% less packaging.Compared to paper, 7 trucks are needed to deliver the same quantity of paper bags contained in one truckload of plastic bags.Plastics are very lightweight when compared to glass, wood, and metal packaging materials.
15 Plastic vs. The Alternatives CostAs of mid-2000, PET was selling for app. $.62/lb.Around the same time, aluminum alloy was selling for app. $1.28/lb.Plastic reduces distribution costs-Decrease in necessary truckloadsFuel savingsReduces lost inventory costs.Glass has become a premium packaging material.39% fuel savings simply by switching from glass to plastic bottles.While glass can smash and aluminum can crush, plastic is more durable and virtually unbreakable. This represents less inventory waste at the manufacturing, distributing, and retail levels.
16 Plastic vs. The Alternatives Environment ImpactPlastics are recycled less frequently than glass and aluminum.Plastics are not biodegradable.Plastics that are recycled are not recycled very efficiently. There is a low (yield).
17 Plastic vs. The Alternatives Environmental ImpactPlastic also has a positive impact on the environment. Consider the following fact:When comparing the manufacturing processes of polystyrene and paper cups, it was found the the paper cups use:15 times more chemicals.More than 6 times more steam.13 times more electricity.30% more cooling water.170 times more process water.The lightweight nature of plastics results in fewer truckloads and less fuel usage.The fewer truckloads and less fuel usage amounts to less air pollution.
20 Recycle Statistics Commonly recycled plastics >80% of all US households have access to plastic collection and recycling programsIn 1998 plastic bottle packaging amassed 1.45 billion pounds by volumeCommonly recycled plasticsPlastic Grocery BagsPlastic Milk Jugs and Detergent BottlesPlastic Beverage Containers
21 Reuse (cont.) Good Examples Large reusable containers Small packages of concentrated product are bought and diluted to large containerReduces product packaging cost, landfill spaceReusable Plastic Shipping Containers (RPSC’s)Replaces single use containersReduces shipping/receiving costs, landfill space
22 Reusing and Recycling Plastic Packaging ReuseStatisticsCommonly reused plastic packagingBenefitsGood ExamplesRecycleCommonly recycled plastic packagingRecycling Process
23 Reuse Statistic Common Reusable Packaging A 1997 survey found 80% of Americans reuse plastic products and packagingCommon Reusable PackagingPlastic Grocery BagsPlastic Milk Jugs and Detergent BottlesPlastic Beverage Containers
24 Reuse (cont.) Benefits Good Properties Delays filling of landfills Long lastingDurableChemically inertDelays filling of landfillsLowers cost of garbage disposal
25 In Summary Plastics Lighter …..……………………………. Cheaper …………... More Durable ………………………