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Plastics in Packaging Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn

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Presentation on theme: "Plastics in Packaging Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plastics in Packaging Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn
----General Topic Introduction--- Introduce Group Members Scott H. Boyle Brian D’Amico Janine Horn Mark Przybylski

2 What Will be Discussed Definition of a plastic.
Overview of the packaging industry. Why plastics are used in packaging. A detailed look at the different types of plastics used in packaging. How plastics compare to alternative materials. Environmental Impacts

3 What is a Plastic? A plastic is defined as an organic material that has the ability to flow into a desired shape when heat and pressure are applied and to retain that shape when they are withdrawn. Composed primarily of a binder with- Plasticizers Fillers Pigments Other additives The binder is the actual polymer – this gives the plastic its main characteristics and usually its name. The plasticizers are added to the binder to increase its flexibility and toughness Fillers are added to improve particular features such as hardness or resistance to shock. Pigments are added to impart various colors.

4 Industry Overview World sales of primary packaging materials estimated to be $434 billion in 2001. Up 12.5% from $385 billion in 1997. World sales of finished packaging materials is estimated to be $800 billion. Four main categories of raw packaging materials: Paper and Board Glass Metal Plastic Over the past few years, plastic has become increasingly popular. Primary packaging materials are the raw materials and they consist of the four main categories listed below. Finished packaging materials include the value added from conversion, such as printing and whatnot. Talk about percentage breakdown of four categories.

5 Why Plastics? A wide variety of different qualities- Lightweight
Rigid vs. Flexible Clear vs. Opaque Lightweight Strong Cost Show a rigid plastic vs. a flexible plastic Lightweight, toss a bottle in the air. Strong, through it to the ground Cost - plastics are low cost – I will talk about this more later in the presentation.

6 Which Plastics are Used?
Six resins account for almost 97 percent of all plastic used in packaging. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – 9% High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – 29% Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – 32% Poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) – 5% Poly-propylene (PP) – 11% Polystyrene (PS) – 11% PET- used mainly in soft-drink bottles, as well as other containers such as cough syrup. HDPE – Used in milk, water, juice, soap and laundry bottles, margarine tubs, yogurt containers, etc. LDPE – Used in film products such as bags, flexible lids, and squeeze bottles. PVC – Water bottles, film for meat packaging, the film for electronics packaging PP – Ketchup bottles, plastic screw tops, opaque maple syrup bottles, etc. PS – usually foamed – coffee cups, meat trays, the “peanuts”

7 Polypropylene Physical Properties Durable High Melting point
High elongation 300% High Tensile Strength 4500 psi High Yield Strength 4000 psi High Melting point Low Density Lowest density of all plastics used in packaging

8 Why Polypropylene? Practicality Many everyday uses Inexpensive
Chemically resistant Ideal for holding hot liquids Stretchy vs. rigid Many everyday uses Ketchup bottles Peanut butter jars

9 Polyvinyl Chloride Need Title Chemically non-reactive
Flexible vs. Rigid Self Extinguishing Plasticized vs. Unplasticized Plasticized is more flexible

10 Why PVC Versatile Self Extinguishing Many forms
Can be machined with standard metal working tools Self Extinguishing Used to house electrical wiring Many forms Sheet Tubing Piping

11 Polyvinylidene Dichloride
Discovered in 1933 Accidental Discovery Original use was to stop corrosion on airplanes After a green color and a pungent smell had been removed it was used for food storage. Most common form of PVDC is Saran Wrap®

12 Why PVDC PVDC is a very effective food preservation method.
Co-polymerization used in synthesis creates a very tight molecular chain Provides good barrier against air and moisture. Chemically non-reactive Ensures that food won’t taste like plastic

13 Plastic vs. The Alternatives Stress Strengths
This is not a great method of comparison however. This is mainly a measure of when the material yields. And we know that when glass yields it cracks or shatters and when aluminum yields it crushes, but plastic is so flexible that it just bends with the pressure. This makes plastic very difficult to break even given the above stat.

14 Plastic vs. The Alternatives
Incredibly lightweight 2 lbs of plastic can deliver 1000 oz. of liquid. To carry the same amount it would take: 3 lbs of aluminum 8 lbs of steel 27 lbs of glass Compared to glass, plastic drink bottles allow a distribution truck to carry up to 63% more drink and 83% less packaging. Compared to paper, 7 trucks are needed to deliver the same quantity of paper bags contained in one truckload of plastic bags. Plastics are very lightweight when compared to glass, wood, and metal packaging materials.

15 Plastic vs. The Alternatives
Cost As of mid-2000, PET was selling for app. $.62/lb. Around the same time, aluminum alloy was selling for app. $1.28/lb. Plastic reduces distribution costs- Decrease in necessary truckloads Fuel savings Reduces lost inventory costs. Glass has become a premium packaging material. 39% fuel savings simply by switching from glass to plastic bottles. While glass can smash and aluminum can crush, plastic is more durable and virtually unbreakable. This represents less inventory waste at the manufacturing, distributing, and retail levels.

16 Plastic vs. The Alternatives
Environment Impact Plastics are recycled less frequently than glass and aluminum. Plastics are not biodegradable. Plastics that are recycled are not recycled very efficiently. There is a low (yield).

17 Plastic vs. The Alternatives
Environmental Impact Plastic also has a positive impact on the environment. Consider the following fact: When comparing the manufacturing processes of polystyrene and paper cups, it was found the the paper cups use: 15 times more chemicals. More than 6 times more steam. 13 times more electricity. 30% more cooling water. 170 times more process water. The lightweight nature of plastics results in fewer truckloads and less fuel usage. The fewer truckloads and less fuel usage amounts to less air pollution.

18 Recycle (cont.) Recycling process Collection Sorting Reclamation

19 Recycle (cont.) Benefits Less landfill waste Environmentally friendly

20 Recycle Statistics Commonly recycled plastics
>80% of all US households have access to plastic collection and recycling programs In 1998 plastic bottle packaging amassed 1.45 billion pounds by volume Commonly recycled plastics Plastic Grocery Bags Plastic Milk Jugs and Detergent Bottles Plastic Beverage Containers

21 Reuse (cont.) Good Examples Large reusable containers
Small packages of concentrated product are bought and diluted to large container Reduces product packaging cost, landfill space Reusable Plastic Shipping Containers (RPSC’s) Replaces single use containers Reduces shipping/receiving costs, landfill space

22 Reusing and Recycling Plastic Packaging
Reuse Statistics Commonly reused plastic packaging Benefits Good Examples Recycle Commonly recycled plastic packaging Recycling Process

23 Reuse Statistic Common Reusable Packaging
A 1997 survey found 80% of Americans reuse plastic products and packaging Common Reusable Packaging Plastic Grocery Bags Plastic Milk Jugs and Detergent Bottles Plastic Beverage Containers

24 Reuse (cont.) Benefits Good Properties Delays filling of landfills
Long lasting Durable Chemically inert Delays filling of landfills Lowers cost of garbage disposal

25 In Summary Plastics Lighter …..……………………………. Cheaper …………...
More Durable ………………………

26 Questions???


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