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Sales and Operations Planning CHAPTER THIRTEEN McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Sales and Operations Planning CHAPTER THIRTEEN McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sales and Operations Planning CHAPTER THIRTEEN McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Sales and Operations Planning Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP): process for integrating marketing and operations plan to develop a tactical plan Attempt to balance supply and demand S&OP SupplyDemand 13–2

3 Sales and Operations Planning 13–3

4 Balancing Objectives Finance High ROI Maximize return Minimize risk High contribution customers Marketing/Sales Aggregate planning Many product variations Fast response, high service Maximize revenue Operations Detail planning Fewer products Long, stable production runs Maximize output, minimize cost Reduce variance, maintain ‘up-time’ Efficient grouping of supply & demand 13–4

5 Benefits of Sales & Operations Planning Quantitative benefits: –Improved forecast accuracy –Higher customer service –More stable supply –Better new product introduction Qualitative benefits –Better organizational teamwork –Faster and better aligned decision making –Greater accountability for performance –Better business visibility 13–5

6 Aggregate Production Planning Costs Aggregate Production Planning: balances production, inventory, resources and demand –Holding Inventory: having inventory on hand –Regular Production: average labor and benefits –Overtime: working more hours than standard –Hiring: finding, acquiring and training new employees –Fire/Layoff: separation packages –Backorder/lost sales: expediting supply, lost good-will –Subcontracting: unit cost and loss of control 13–6

7 Aggregate Planning Strategies Level: produce at a constant rate, use changing inventory levels to buffer supply and demand 13–7

8 Soda Galore planning data 13–8

9 Sales and Operations Planning Production cost Worker earns $3200/month = [(160 hours)($20.00/hr)] so production cost = $0.8/case = ($3200/4000 cases) Since overtime wage =$30, which is 1.5 times larger, so $1.2 / case 13–9

10 Sales and Operations Planning 13–10

11 Creating a Level Aggregate Plan Level: produce at a constant rate, use changing inventory levels to buffer supply and demand P = level production rate D i = demand in period i EI = desired ending inventory level BI = beginning inventory N = Number of planning periods 13–11

12 Level production Plan 13–12

13 Level production plan P= (24,000+32,000+32,000+48, ,000+44,000+5, )/6 =40,000 Total cost= production + inventory + hiring/firing cost = (240,000)(0.8) + (130,000)(0.3) =$233,000 13–13

14 Aggregate Planning Strategies Chase: change production to match demand, inventory remains relatively stable and low 13–14

15 Creating a Chase Aggregate Plan Chase: change production to match demand, inventory remains relatively stable and low Three options to consider: 1.Produce everything in house, vary the workforce level 2.Produce everything in house, workforce level to meet lowest demand period, use overtime for higher demand 3.Produce everything in house, workforce level to meet lowest demand period, use subcontractor to produce higher demand 13–15

16 Chase Plan: adjust workforce size 13–16

17 Total cost= production + inventory + hiring + firing cost = (240,000)(0.8) + (30,000)(0.3) +(9)(1,000) + (6)(1,500) = $219,000 13–17

18 Chase Plan: overtime or subcontract 13–18

19 Chase Plan: adjust workforce size Total cost using overtime = production + overtime +inventory + hiring/firing cost = (144,000)(0.8) + (96,000)(1.2) +(30,000)(0.3) + (2)(1,500) = $242,400 13–19

20 Chase Plan: adjust workforce size Total cost using subcontractor = production + subcontract + inventory + hiring/firing cost = (144,000)(0.8) + (96,000)(1.15) +(30,000)(0.3) + (2)(1,500) = $237,600 13–20

21 Aggregate Planning Strategies Hybrid: combination of level and chase strategies 13–21

22 Hybrid solution 13–22

23 Total cost using hybrid = production + overtime +inventory cost = (192,000)(0.8) + (48,000)(1.2) +(54,000)(0.3) = $227,400 13–23

24 Comparison of five solutions 13–24

25 Aggregate Planning for Service Yield Management: adjusting prices in response to demand levels Services can not create inventory to buffer demand Modify prices to encourage customers to purchase for service at supplier desired times Goal is to maximize revenue and profit 13–25

26 Ch 13 hw Do problem 8 on page 413 (note: for the chase plan use chase plan by adjusting work force) 13–26


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