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Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Supplier/Buyer Training

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Presentation on theme: "Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Supplier/Buyer Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Supplier/Buyer Training
July 21, 2009

2 Presenters Ed Kasaba Greg Manley Gary Pedersen Jim Scarpati
Mike Suever

3 Supplier Proposal Training
This training is generalized in nature Each Proposal has its specific requirements No two Proposals are the same, but, many similarities do exist Programs tend to develop boilerplate RFQ/RFP packages tailored to their specific customer requirements Buyer’s tend to modify boilerplates to satisfy their needs – ensuring all requirements are there So, we recognize RFQ/RFPs from various programs/buyers look different – PWR working to standardize the process

4 AGENDA Disclaimer Mike Suever Proposal Cost Overview Greg Manley
Firewall Ed Kasaba Proposal Process Greg Manley Proposal Compliance Mike Suever Generating the proposal Greg Manley Make/Buy Mike Suever Types of Estimates Greg Manley RFP/RFQ Mike Suever Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI Gary Pedersen Source Selection Gary Pedersen PWR Evaluation Criteria Jim Scarpati & Greg Manley Completing the PWR Proposal Greg Manley Change Proposals Mike Suever

5 Proposal and Contracts Overview

6 Customers PWR has different types of customers and sales as identified below: Government contracts - Prime. These consist of sales to Department of Defense (DoD) (Army, Navy, Air Force, and other DoD agencies); National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) development centers, laboratories, test centers; and other Government departments and agencies (e.g., transportation, energy, and so forth.). Also included are foreign military sales contracted through a DoD or Government agency. Subcontract. Programs within PWR may be contracted as a subcontractor or team member to another aerospace company or team of contractors on a Government contract. Commercial and direct foreign sales. These types of sales are to other companies for products or services not subject to government procurement regulations, and to foreign governments as a direct sale.

7 Business Life Cycle

8 Types of Solicitations
RFP -- Request for Proposal RFQ -- Request for Quote ITQ -- Invitation to Quote ECP -- Engineering Change Proposal BAA -- Broad Agency Announcement Used by DOD for basic and applied research not related to the development of a specific system or hardware procurement CAN -- Cooperative Agreement Notice Used to advance and commercialize technology where government has unique capabilities NTE -- Not to Exceed Proposal NRA -- NASA Research Announcement Used by NASA for research interests in support of NASA programs PRDA -- Program Research and Development Announcement Used by DOD for exploratory research that has general application and is not system specific

9 Contract Types Contract types are grouped into two broad categories:
Fixed price Cost reimbursement The specific contract types range from firm fixed-price, in which the contractor has full responsibility for the performance costs and resulting profit (or loss), to cost-plus-fixed-fee, in which the contractor has minimal responsibility for the performance cost and the negotiated fee is fixed. In between are the various incentive type contracts in which the contractor's responsibility for the performance costs and the profit a fee incentives offered are tailored to the uncertainties involved in contract performance. Time and materials contracts offer characteristics of both fixed- price and Cost-reimbursement type contracts. Indefinite-delivery type contracts also offer unique contracting characteristics

10 Types of Contracts Cost Reimbursable (Cost Type)
Cost Plus Percentage of Cost (Illegal) Cost Plus Fixed Fee Cost Plus Award Fee Cost Plus Incentive Fee Fixed Price Firm Fixed Price Fixed Price Level of Effort

11 Types of Contracts Time and Material (T&M) Contracts
A T&M type contract provides for acquiring supplies or services on the basis of both a. Direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates that include wages, overhead, general and administrative (G&A) expenses, and profit. b. Materials at cost, including, if appropriate, material handling (overhead) costs as a part of material costs.

12 Contracting Methods Formal advertising (sealed bid) is preferred by the Government Contracting by negotiation is the alternative Governed by FAR Basis for agreement on terms and price

13 Cost Type (Cost Reimbursable)
Costs are paid provided they are Allowable – check FAR Allocable – charge the right contract and comply with the CAS Disclosure Statement Direct or Indirect or G&A Fee is based on “Target Cost” Proposal and negotiations determine target cost and are used to establish fee

14 Firm Fixed Price Used when costs can be estimated with good assurance e.g., based on recent production cost experience You do a defined job and get a defined payment Can be used for large production contracts Risks and opportunities are high

15 Fixed Price Level of Effort
Used for small contracts or task orders For example – 200 $200 / hour. Bill hours at a rate. Your billing rate includes your profit. Subtleties about engineering hours vs. business hours Ensure contract is clear.

16 Risk vs. Reward Cost reimbursable contracts inherently have limited risk for the contractor. They are most frequently used for new technology and research and development contracts – not production. Fixed price contracts involve risk. The contractor needs to deliver a good product no matter what the cost. Profit opportunities may be greater on FP contracts than on cost reimbursable.

17 Contract Modifications
The Government uses the “Changes” clause to add or delete work Must be in scope of original contract Requires and “equitable adjustment” to contract cost, fee, period of performance, schedule, place of delivery, etc. Change proposals are submitted and negotiated on a fairly routine basis

18 What Is A Winning Proposal?
A business proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process--i.e., whenever a buyer considers more than price in a purchase. There are three distinct categories of business proposals: formally solicited, informally solicited, and unsolicited. Having defined a proposal, what is a winning proposal? What are the characteristics of the proposal, the organization, and the solution which make it attractive to evaluators?

19 What Is A Winning Proposal?
Winning proposals have four characteristics in common: The supplier fully understands the needs and problems. The supplier knows how to satisfy the needs or solve the problems and offers a suitable plan. The supplier is well qualified by virtue of experience and resources, including personnel, to carry out the proposed plan; and The price asked is reasonable and is within the organization's budget.

20 Governing Laws, Regulations & Policies
Legislation Truth in Negotiations Act (TINA) Anti-Trust Laws Foreign Corrupt Practices Act False Claims Act Regulations Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Policies Government directives Armed Services Pricing Manual (ASPM) Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) manual

21 PWR Firewall Training

22 PWR Firewall Training Definition of a Firewall:
A process or procedure that limits the flow of information from, to, or within PWR. It is used primarily where unrestricted access to the protected information might introduce bias or confer an actual or apparent unfair competitive advantage to PWR. A firewall procedure specifies both how protected information will be treated and with whom authorized PWR employees (or consultants) may share the information.

23 PWR Firewall Training Types of Firewall Work Restrictions:
Duration of the Firewall Physical Segregation of Work Electronic Segregation of Information Past Employment Restrictions Future Work Restrictions Information Marking Requirements

24 PWR Firewall Training Firewall Procedure/Process:
A firewall assures compliance with the terms of a Nondisclosure Agreement (NDA) with another company. A NDA assures that PWR will use that company’s proprietary information only for the purposes identified in the NDA A NDA assures that only a defined group (e.g., employees and possibly contract labor and/or consultants) who have a need to know the information will have access to that company’s proprietary information.

25 PWR Firewall Training Firewall Procedure/Process (cont):
A firewall is appropriate when a Boeing organization is involved in assisting an agency (or other customer) to define the requirements for a program, and another organization within PWR is likely to bid for the program. - FAR or may prohibit PWR participation in the subsequent procurement because of the concern that PWR might craft the requirements so as to give it an advantage against potential competitors. A firewall may arise where PWR is a participant on more than one team competing for a contract. - It assures that the PWR IPT’s supporting the different teams bidding for the contract do not share information about their team’s proposal with persons supporting any other team.

26 PWR Firewall Training PWR Management Responsibilities:
Manages the business. Primarily handles resource, commitment, programmatic issues. Assures even and level competition. Programmatic and technical oversight. Executive communication with the customer – primarily commitments. May have knowledge of multiple customer’s projects – must firewall internally. Must restrict information given to the firewalled teams. Generally will limit information received from the firewalled teams to a need to know basis. Should not participate in the development of the customer’s strategy, concepts, program plans or any other competitive aspects of his/her proposal/project.

27 PWR Firewall Training Firewalled Team Responsibilities:
Manages the Project/Program. Translates Prime requirements into specific PWR technical system requirements and requests. Handles All Programmatic, Technical, and Business Communication with the customer. Communicates technical and business data to the customer. Communicates task requirements and outcomes with process support personnel outside the firewall. Controls (i.e. filters & sanitizes) information flowing to both the customer and the non-firewalled process area support personnel to assure that competition sensitive data, including both hard data and abstract information is not transferred.

28 PWR Firewall Training Non-Firewalled Process Area Support Team Responsibilities: Defines task assignments with PWR Firewalled interface Performs & reports task outcomes to PWR Firewalled interface Does not communicate with the customer - Should limit work on more than one customer to the extent possible

29 PWR Firewall Training Restrictions:
Non-firewalled personnel SHALL NOT perform or participate in the following: Development of the customer’s strategy, concepts, program plans or any other competitive aspects of his/her proposal/project. Generating, reviewing, or negotiating the customer’s proposal, or of PWR’s proposal to the customer that would be embodied by the customer’s proposal other than to provide generic PWR data such as past performance, etc., or to review specific portions of PWR’s proposal that clearly are not competitive discriminators between the customer’s proposal (e.g. PWR pricing data). Push suggestions that could “cross pollinate” a customer’s ideas to other customer or PWR interfaces or otherwise influence a customer’s competitive position on knowledge of another customer’s proposal.

30 PWR Firewall Training Third Party Proprietary Information
When PWR is working cooperatively with another company, the obligation in the firewall should be limited to protect proprietary information of the other party. - Even where the information is not marked, however, it must be treated as protected if its contents are clearly proprietary information, such as financial information or trade secrets. - This information should not be shared with another part of PWR or any other defined group.

31 What is a Non Disclosure Agreement (NDA)
A Non Disclosure Agreement is an Agreement between the Parties that: Protects trade secrets and proprietary information Defines rights and obligations of parties with respect to information being shared Describes nature of information, permitted use, type of protection, how long will the information be shared, with whom, etc. An NDA is a legally binding contract when executed by all parties

32 When is An NDA Needed NDAs are used generally when disclosure of Proprietary Information will take place in the course of discussions prior to execution of a definitive business contract. Prepared in connection with specific programs or business or technical discussions

33 Non Disclosure Agreement (NDA)
An NDA is not required when the exchange of data occurs under the scope of a purchase order (PO) that incorporate proprietary information protection in the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc. (PWR) General Provisions unless there is a PWR/program requirement to obtain a separate agreement even though PO includes the proprietary information.

34 PWR Proposal Process

35 Pre-RFP Planning Identify customer needs/funding constraints
Understand market needs Identify competition and determine their approach Evaluate your strengths & weaknesses vs. competition & customer expectations Identify your proposal team and sub-tier suppliers Generate capture strategy - win factors, themes Identify key personnel -capture team (Engineering processes, OPS, C&P, QA, others as needed) Identify requirements Develop PA budget for management and team (inchstone level) Identify IR&D/capital requirements

36 Proposal Process Market Price Develop Proposal Strategy Program
Programs Marketing Business Plans Should Cost Program Manager Contract Manager Cost Volume/Business Manager Program Manager Project Engineer Cost Volume/Business Manager Program Manager Project Engineer Cost Volume/BM Mgr. Market Price Develop Proposal Strategy Program Definition Function Overview RFP RFQ Establish: Due Date RFP Requirements Deliverables/MIR’s, T&C’s Estimating Methodology “Similar To: Programs Make/Buy Affordability/DTC Goals Prepare: Program Plan Program Schedule Test Plan Bill of Materials (M/B) Work Breakdown Structure Resp. Assignment Matrix Present/Discuss: Program Approach Pricing Strategy Estimating Assistance Identify “Similar To” Program Manager Project Engineer Cost Volume Mgr. Functional Mgr. Technical & Cost Volume Manager Profit Analysis Risks and Opportunity, Capital Investment Estimating & Pricing Function Directors/VP Detail Estimating Task Descriptions Estimate Basis of Estimates Functional Review Evaluate Estimating Access Cost Risk (if any) Publish Cost/Technical and Mgmt Volumes Risk Assessment/ Commitment Complete Technical Volume Pricing Actions & Prepare Cost Cmt Review Cycle Est. & Pricing Contact Mgmt. Executive Mgmt. Evaluate Risk Assume Risk Revise Estimate Rescope Labor Standards CERs Detail Estimates Parametrics “Similar To’s” Round Table/ Expert Opinion Supplier Quotes P.O. History Catalog Prices Substantiation (-3’s) Labor Material ODC Program Manager Contract Manager Cost Volume Mgr. Support Audit Fact Finding Negotiations

37 Proposal Process Overview

38 Analyze the Proposal Requirements
Read the request for proposal (RFP) Understand the statement of work (SOW) and proposal type Generate ground rules and assumptions Proposal preparation guidelines Due date Required volumes Page and print specifications Evaluation criteria Technical description (SOW) Expected program length Expected program cost Procurement contract type Deliverable items (hardware, data, etc.) Activity: Analyze actual solicitation (PRDA, BAA, or?) Customer Contract type Work and deliverables Program length and cost Proposal due date Format guidelines Evaluation criteria Create and generate a compliance matrix early 7 7

39 Think of the RFP as a Quiz
Answer the questions clearly and explicitly What? -- SOW/WBS/program plan How? -- Baseline/tech approach When? -- Master program schedule Who? -- Organization/RAM Where? -- Facilities Why? -- Discriminators, themes, trades

40 Beginning of the Proposal Process
Proposal manager identified Review available data Capture strategy Program overview MIRs or selection criteria - Win factors, themes Develop WBS & dictionary SOW & specifications Design-to-cost targets Program schedule Risk management plan Business plan (Program Performance Plan) Establish technical concepts Program organization Make/buy plan Hardware list Test plan Determine profit objective

41 Developing Requirements Matrices
Proposal Compliance Developing Requirements Matrices

42 Proposal Receipt RFP receipt by PWR Contracts Accounting Established
Proposal Plan of Action Developed Proposal Manager Calls Kick-off meeting Proposal Team begins the Requirements Review and Shred Systems Integrity develops Supplier Flowdowns

43 Purpose Ties proposal response to requirements and evaluation criteria
Flows RFP requirements to proposal outline Tool for establishing proper page count Ensures compliance with proposal requirements

44 How Matrix Developed We use a macro developed in house that parses a Word document into an Excel spreadsheet* We then use the spreadsheet to develop an annotated proposal outline with descriptive headings, section assignments, page allocations, graphic notes, themes, writing assignments/instructions, and linkages to customer’s evaluation criteria *This is an inexpensive option, but there are products available on the market that will parse RFPs. See

45 Requirements Matrix Each requirement should be a separate line
Most Important Requirements (i.e., Evaluation Criteria) drive page allocation

46 DRD Matrix Develop a separate matrix for Data Requirements Deliverables

47 How Suppliers Can Help We recommend that Suppliers use a similar principle in reviewing PWR Requests for Proposals or Quotations Often, we have tried many ways of identifying key/critical elements needed within the proposal and with rare exception they’re missed In the past, we have bolded the key/critical elements, developed checklists, etc. to no avail. We welcome any ideas on how to get our RFP’s read by the Suppliers!!

48 Generating the Proposal

49 Proposal Preparation Proposal Outline Themes Mockup
Technical & Cost are to be Prepared Together Approach must be Life Cycle Oriented PWR Affordability Process Proposal Schedule

50 Proposal Steps Target Assessment Customer RFP Requirements
RFP-Statement of Work Price Tasks within WBS – 1st Pass, Compare to Target Assess/Identify Scope for Reduction Price Tasks Estimate Development Hrs, mat’l, ODC Program Plan WBS Customer RFP Requirements Ground-Rules and Assumptions Terms and Conditions Design to Cost (DTC) Targets Work Organization & WBS Task Description Integrated Program Master Schedule/Major Milestones and Activity Schedules Make/Buy Task Planning Work Decomposition Contract Data Requirements/Data Requirements etc Identify Historical References or other Basis for Estimate – Data Driven Estimates Target Assessment Within DTC Target? Yes No Scope Risk and Opportunities Identify R&O’s when Estimating Price Task

51 Proposal Planning Steps
Develop: Proposal schedule Executive/process management review plan Volume outlines Proposal responsibility assignment matrix Identify attendees to kick-off meeting Identify relevant program history from which to base estimates Proposal ground rules & pricing instructions RFP compliance matrix Plan proposal kickoff meeting

52 Study the RFP, Then Create the Outline
Write the outline to match the RFP What the customer asked for, the way they asked for it Redline the RFP–then write your outline Analyze the similarities and differences in: Instructions, Evaluation Criteria and Technical Description/requirements Choose a technique to address all areas: Embed one section's requirements within another Cross reference to account for all requirements Coordinate outline with compliance matrix Make each item a heading initially so nothing is forgotten Format the headings as they will appear in the proposal Add section themes Address the SOW item by item Address the evaluation criteria explicitly Assign writers and page allocations Indicate desired tables and figures Include schedule, WBS, RAM, organization chart Outline development should be interactive Revise and redistribute as needed (highlight changes in the morning meeting)

53 Proposal Kick Off Meeting (PPOA)
Brief proposal team operating groundrules Brief Program requirements, MIR’s, Potential Competitors etc Distribute SOW, specifications, WBS etc. Brief proposal outline, mockups, and executive summary Distribute schedules, RAMS, budgets (hours/task for each person) Communicate Make/Buy plans (ie for the Bill of Material) Distribute DTC goals for each IPT Communicate Tech Volume and Cost Volume requirements Identify outstanding information and action plan

54 Technical and Cost are Prepared in Parallel
Technical Proposal Phases Capture Planning Outline Mockups Draft Final Proposal Cost Targets Design to Cost Basis of Estimates Preliminary Cost Run Final Cost Run Cost Proposal Phases Each Technical Proposal phase has a counterpart Cost Proposal phase

55 The Proposal Schedule (30 days)
Must be complete prior to kickoff meeting Should include: Exact calendar dates based on RFP data Kickoff Preparation Include capture team products Proposal input preparation periods Final Outline Mockups Drafts Final revisions complete Pricing schedule Final cost targets Manpower inputs/BOEs Subcontractor/purchased material bids Final pricing runs Reviews Printing/Shipping Make it as detailed as practical Update and status every day–highlighting concern areas

56 Fact-Finding PWR Pricing acts as lead to support ALL audit activities
Provides DCAA, etc. With proposal copies Coordinates all meetings between DCAA & PWR staff Documents all issues and responses Attends exit conference CA acts as lead to support all fact finding activities Coordinate all meeting between customer & rd PM & functions support both as need

57 Negotiations PWR Legal/CA acts as lead to support ALL Negotiation activities coordinate all meeting between customer & RD documents all issues and responses exchanges offers & counter offers Summarize cost impacts for Management PM & functions support both as need Pricer updates C&P data & coordinates disclosures w/CA Pricer performs sweeps & certs if applicable CA completes memo of negotiations

58 Make/Buy

59 Make or Buy Planning Process
Executive Mgmt responsible will co-Chair or appoints Program Manager to co-Chair the Make/Buy Committee Operations Executive Mgmt will co-Chair or delegate to a subordinate manager the Make/Buy Committee Make/Buy Committee consists of: Finance Supply Management (Committee Secretary) Engineering Quality Assurance Business Development Contracts Human Resources Small Business Administrator

60 Make or Buy Planning Process
The Make/Buy decision making process divides parts and processes into the following three categories: Must Make: Hardware consisting of details, subassemblies and assemblies that historically demand extreme attention & close coordination between functions. Must Buy: Hardware such as raw material, castings/forgings, catalog or industrial hardware that PWR cannot produce. Can Make or Buy: Hardware not contained in the above categories and could be made in house or procured. Typically, the majority of Program requirements fall into this category.

61 Make or Buy Planning Process
A Bill of Material (BOM) or conceptual BOM is developed by the Integrated Product Team and/or Engineering. The Integrated Product Teams, based upon recommendations from PWR Operations, and in conjunction with their Industrial Systems Integration Teams performs an assessment of capacity, capability, overall costs required to support the program and develop a sourcing strategy.

62 Make or Buy Planning Process
IPT presents the program sourcing strategy of make or buy recommendations to the Make/Buy Committee The Committee is responsible for sourcing material in a manner the best utilizes PWR Operations’ and Supplier resources. Prime consideration is given to quality, cost and schedule requirements The Committee reviews the Program Sourcing Strategy considering core competencies, cost, schedule, risks, requirements, Small Business objectives, etc. A Specific Program Make/Buy Plan developed & Approved Plan integrated into the Program Execution Plan

63 Make/Buy Analysis Uniqueness Competitive Advantage Unique Components
(LTA’s, Strategic Alliances, Etc) Strategic In-house Make (Must Make) Buy – Common Not a Comp Adv. Competitive Advantage (Can Make/Can Buy) Competitive Advantage

64 Supplier Risk Assessment
Risks High 5 6 4 Medium 4 Likelihood of Occurrence 3 4 3 7 1 2 6 5 2 Mitigation Status 5 1 3 Low 7 1 2 3 4 5 Consequence of Occurrence Original Change

65 Manufacture or Purchase Planning Process
Internal Process to decide: Sufficient capacity and support to core competencies exist to make product If not, recommend outsourcing Decision to be in concurrence with the PWR-Operations Strategic Plan Similar to Make or Buy – Committee formed to review same as Make or Buy Normally convenes after Prime Contract Award to PWR Analysis performed to consider Program schedules, cost, shop load and process capabilities and risks Upon analysis completion, subcommittees present recommendations to Committee Committee approves and documents manufacture or purchase plan

66 Types of Estimates

67 Types of Estimates Within the proposal process, various kinds of estimates and quotations are prepared as defined in the following text. These definitions are consistent with those published by the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis (SCEA) and DoD. Cost estimates are primarily prepared to respond to solicitations, however; they are also prepared to support technical studies, life cycle cost (LCC), cost as an independent variable (CAIV), "what if exercises, and design trade studies. Budgetary and Rough Order of Magnitude(ROM) - These estimates are for comparative studies on new programs and long-range procurement planning for established programs. Both the customer and PWR use them for analysis, preliminary program planning and scheduling purposes, and establishment of fund allocations. These estimates are usually prepared from minimum design and work statement information. Planning, budgetary, and rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimates do not bind PWR to perform a contract within a given price. However, because of the frequent reliance on these cost/prices for fiscal year funding and procurement planning and scheduling, considerable effort is made to achieve accuracy in their preparation. Contingencies may be added to these estimates to cover uncertainties.

68 Types of Estimates Firm Quotations - These are prepared to definitize the price of a program or work package. When definitized, the price is a binding obligation on PWR. Estimates for firm quotations are normally based on well-defined statements of work and plans, but can also be based on minimum design and work statement information. Not-to-exceed (NTE) - A not-to-exceed (NTE) estimate is a firm and binding obligation by PWR to perform at a cost to the customer not greater than the NTE quotation, assuming no change in the contractual baseline. NTE estimates are generally quoted to a customer when the statement of work and other conditions are definitive enough to establish a firm baseline. A contingency is often added to allow for definition and cost estimating uncertainties. Not-less-than (NLT) -A not-less-than (NLT) estimate is a firm credit estimate by PWR and includes all requirements of an NTE proposal except for the ensuing commitment, which will not be less than the NLT quotation.

69 RFP/RFQ Process RFQ-RFP Training

70 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI

71 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI
Definitions Types of solicitations Evaluation criteria SPI Process

72 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI
Request for Proposal (RFP) Request for Quote (RFQ) Request for information (RFI)

73 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI
DEFINITION of RFP: Request for Proposal (RFP) - A solicitation to prospective suppliers where the supplies and/or services described are highly complex, undeveloped products and/or services, requiring a response detailing technical and management expertise and a proposed design/development approach.

74 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI
DEFINITION of RFQ: Request for Quotation (RFQ) - A solicitation to prospective suppliers wherein the requirements described are existing, “off-the-shelf” equipment, build-to-print parts with known specifications, common services, or otherwise sufficiently defined so that the award can be made on the basis of price and past performance from the responsive bidders.

75 Difference of RFP and RFQ and RFI
DEFINITION of RFI: Request for information (RFI) - is a standard business process whose purpose is to collect written information about the capabilities of various suppliers. Normally it follows a format that can be used for comparative purposes. An RFI is primarily used to gather information to help make a decision on what steps to take next. RFIs are therefore seldom the final stage and are instead often used in combination with the following: request for proposal (RFP), and request for quotation (RFQ). See Sample RFI – NASA Display of Shuttle and SSME

76 Types of solicitations
A solicitation is a document, sent to prospective contractors by a Government agency, requesting the submission of offers or information. This is a generic term that includes the following types of solicitations: Invitations for Bids (IFBs) Requests for Proposals (RFPs) Requests for Quotations (RFQs)

77 Invitation for Bids (IFB)
The Invitation for Bid (IFB) is the solicitation document used in Sealed Bidding procurements. IFBs must describe the Government’s requirements clearly, accurately, and completely. It includes all documents needed by prospective bidders for the purpose of bidding plus all terms and conditions of the prospective contract (except price) so that all bidders will submit bids on the same basis and award can be made solely on the basis of price and price-related factors. FAR You will use this type of solicitation when your requirement is definitive, pricing is stable, competition is expected, and there is not a need to hold discussions with any potential bidders.

78 Buyer’s Role in the RFQ/RFP Process
Upon receipt of a requirement the Buyer reviews and determines if the originating organization(s) has furnished complete specifications, blueprints, statements of work (SOW), description of item(s) to be purchased, etc., so that requirements can be adequately defined in the RFQ/RFP and any resulting Purchase Order (PO). The Buyer will contact originating organization(s) or Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) if additional data is required.

79 RFQ Structure The Buyer is responsible for the entire content of the RFQ. The RFQ should be structured in such a manner to assure that all requirements are clearly delineated on the RFQ and that the supplier clearly understands the requirements. In some cases, the Buyer may need to provide additional clarification of the requirements to assure complete understanding by the supplier. In such cases, the Buyer is responsible for providing consistent information to all solicited suppliers.

During solicitation phase for Government procurements $500K and above, consider the applicability of: TINA - $650K (FAR ) CAS - $650K (FAR ) SB Subcontracting Plan - $550K (FAR )

81 Supplier Steps To Providing A Responsive Proposal
Do’s Read the RFP Instructions Contact the Buyer regarding RFP questions Meet the RFP deadline and provide a Proposal which meets the RFP instructions Protect PWR proprietary data Protect Export controlled data Don’ts Contact technical personnel for questions during the proposal process unless Buyer instructed Wait to the last minute to ask for an extension Continually ask for extensions

82 Request for proposal Key objectives
Obtain correct information to enable sound business decisions. Ensure that all suppliers have an equal understanding of the requirements. Enable a broader and creative range of solutions to be considered. Responsive Bids allow PWR purchasing to evaluate proposals to obtain a favorable deal.

83 Evaluation Criteria Responsive Bid Price Delivery Technical Solution
Past Performance (SPI) Financial Stability Agreed Upon Terms & Conditions

84 Steps In The RFP Evaluation Process
Step One: Review All Proposals Step Two: Determine Status. Determine if proposal is “responsive” or “non-responsive” Step Three: Score Proposals based on criteria established in the RFP Step Four: Discuss Proposals. The evaluation committee reaches a “unified understanding” of the criteria and corresponding responses. Individual scores may be adjusted at this point based on discussion. Tally results. Step Five: Interview. This step is optional. This is an opportunity for both sides to explain their viewpoints

85 Steps In The RFP Evaluation Process
Step Six: Discussion/Negotiation. This step can be optional, but may be required. Step Seven: Best and Final Offer. This is optional. Once a BAFO is received the committee will evaluate it in the same manner as the original proposal. Step Eight: Recommendation. Written recommendation includes scores, justification and rationale for the decision. Step Nine: Management Review of committee scoring and justification. If accepted, the winning proposal will be used to roll up in PWR proposal or award PO to supplier if using company funds or after PWR is awarded a contract.

86 Source Selection

87 Proposal/Source Selection
Receipt of Proposal Best Value Proposal Evaluation Quality Performance Schedule Performance Price Non-recurring costs impact to overall price evaluation Proposal Evaluation Tool (SPI Tool) Terms & Conditions Technical Evaluation (as required) Source Selection Board (as required)

88 Source Selection PURPOSE AND SCOPE:
To define the process for fairly and ethically evaluating and selecting best value sources of supplies and services. Competitive Procurements Non-Competitive Procurements

89 Source Selection process
PWR Buyer Criteria – See PWR 5.3.2 Selection Process Competitive (Best Value – SPI evaluation) Non-Competitive (Determination of reasonableness) Fact-finding Negotiation Award

90 Evaluation of Quotations or Offers
Many source selections are relatively straight forward and may be completed primarily on the basis of price competition. Other more complex source selections require an assessment of other factors. Best Value Analysis - An evaluation technique based upon an integrated assessment of a supplier’s technical, management, cost or price, and schedule elements, as well as the supplier’s past performance record with PWR, intended to select the source offering the greatest overall benefit in response to the requirement.

91 Lowest Evaluated Proposal
Price Analysis based on comparing two or more proposals using the Supplier Performance Index (SPI) model.

92 SPI Process A formula used to evaluate suppliers’ delivery and quality performance. The model is weighted: 40% SDR (Supplier Delivery Rating) and 60% SQR (Supplier Quality Rating).

93 SPI Calculation The Supplier Performance Index (SPI) is calculated as follows: Here are some sample calculations: 2 – ( SQR * SDR * .40) = SPI 100 SUPPLIER A – ( ) = 1.012 SUPPLIER B – ( ) = 1.030 SUPPLIER C – ( ) = 1.120

94 How is the SPI used? PWR buyers use the SPI as the primary factor in their evaluation of supplier proposals for inspected items. The example below illustrates how it works. SUPPLIER A SUPPLIER B SUPPLIER C QUOTED PRICE $1, $1, $1,023.00 multiplied by SPI EVALUATED PRICE $1, $1, $1,145.76 Supplier A could be selected for the award, even though their quoted price was not the lowest. The closer a supplier’s SPI is to 1.000, our experience indicates, the more likely they will meet PWR’s quality and delivery requirements.

95 Fact-Finding PWR Fact-Finding Questions will be covered in our next section Certified cost and pricing data will be discussed in the next section

96 PWR Evaluation Criteria and Process

97 Agenda PWR Price / Cost Analysis Fact-Finding
PWR Technical Evaluation of Supplier Proposals Funding Profiles, Ogives and PTL

98 PWR Price and Cost Analysis
Greg Manley July 2009

99 Why Do We Need a Cost Analysis?
For government contracts, the Truth in Negotiations Act (TINA), requires the submission of cost and pricing data: When the proposed price is expected to exceed $650,000. When the pricing of a change or modification to a contract exceeds $650,000 For commercial contracts a cost analysis is required: To comply with company procedures. Because it makes good business sense. When you start to talk about TINA, be sure to tell the students that this is a government requirement and not all UTC sites are required to adhere to TINA. If your site works on government contracts then you need to know the details of TINA. Check with your local subcontract advisor for additional information about working with TINA. For sites not working on government contracts you need to check with your local subcontract advisor to find out what policies and procedures apply to your site.

100 What is a Price Analysis?
A price analysis is the process of examining and evaluating a prospective price by comparing the price with other available pricing Typical price analysis techniques include: Competition Catalog/market pricing Comparison to other costs (historical, similar-to, in-house estimate, parametric/cost estimating relationships) Value/visual analysis Do a quick review of price analysis. Tell the students if they want more information about price analysis they should take the Price Analysis course.

101 What is a Cost Analysis? A cost analysis is the review and evaluation of the separate cost elements and proposed profit of a supplier’s cost or pricing data. It is the judgmental factors applied in projecting from historical data to the estimated costs to form an opinion on the degree to which the proposed costs represent a fair & reasonable the cost. Both of the above items assumes reasonable economy and efficiency

102 Overall Cost Analysis Process
Receive Request for Cost/Price Analysis Preliminary Fact Find Questions Start Field Fact-finding Support Negotiations as Member of the Team Supplier SOW Development Receive Technical Evaluation Issue Cost Analysis Position Draft & Submit RFP to Supplier Request DCAA Assist Audit* Introduce the overall process. Details will be discussed on the following viewfoils. Receive Supplier Proposal Request Technical Evaluation Receive Clarification Responses from Supplier Complete Fact-finding Documentation Sign-off Approve Cost Analysis Plan (CAP)** Support Pre-negotiation Review Receive DCAA Assist Audit Report* * Only on Government Contracts ** Optional Note: Some of these tasks will overlap or will be done in parallel with other tasks.

103 DCAA Assist Audit In the event a subcontractor denies access to their cost & pricing or rate data the Cost Analyst should request DCAA audit or rate verification The DCAA audit request is initiated by submitting a request in writing to the cognizant ACO, along with a copy of the subcontractor’s proposal. The request will identify the supplier, contract number and any specific audit needs, i.e. Material, labor hours, rates, etc. or just direct and indirect labor rates A report will be released by the DCAA to the cognizant ACO The ACO will release the report to the requesting Cost Analyst The DCAA’s findings will be utilized in the final cost analysis report.

104 Cost Analysis Process The Supplier Management Agent/Buyer is responsible for: Request cost analysis from the Finance Cost Analysis if thresholds are exceeded Requesting additional information from the supplier (as required) to complete a cost analysis Supporting fact find (as required) Responsible for understanding the logic/details of the cost analysis as completed by the cost analyst Preparing procurement board/memo for review with management. Before you show this slide, ask the students this question: What is a procurement agent responsible for in the cost analysis process? Show the slide and compare it to the answers the students gave. Did they know all the procurement agent’s responsibilities? Additionally, at different sites the procurement agents may have other responsibilities in addition to the responsibilities shown on the slide. Check with your local subcontract advisor for other responsibilities that may be included as part of your job as a procurement agent at your site.

105 Learning Curve Rate of Improvement 100% curve slope = no learning
Robots, 100% automated (very rare) Rate is less when most of the work is done by machines (flatter slope) As a task is repeated, the more efficient the task becomes, due to operator efficiency, tool design, method and process improvements, etc All areas of the enterprise contribute to the overall performance Most of learning is due to improvements outside of the individual worker. Some examples are: Improvements in tooling Facilitating engineering changes Lean activities (Accelerated Improvement Workshops) Progressive management.

106 Learning Curve The greater the amount of manual labor, the greater the opportunity for improvement (steeper slope) The steeper the curve slope (lower curve %) the greater the rate of improvement. Example of manual assembly versus work performed by programmed numerical controlled machines—(although improvements can be achieved by improving the efficiency of the program).

107 Learning Curve Determining the Curve Slope
First, perform regression analysis of the actual data. If the projection produces an unrealistic answer, the correlation is poor, or you have only one data point, then: Use a force curve using a single data point based on a historical curve slope for a similar item. If no historical slopes are available, then: Then use the following rule of thumb curve slope percentages: Sheet Metal 95% Machining 90% NC Machining 95% Assembly 85% There are published lists of curve slope percentages. A regression analysis requires multiple data points. Must have to have at least one data point on which to apply historical slopes of similar items or “rule of thumb” slopes. The data point used is generally the most recent data point provided that is not contaminated with abnormal problems.

108 Learning Curve Advantages Universal tool
Projects continuous improvement Uses past performance to project the future Able to find line of best fit Disadvantages Need to be aware of make/buy and process changes. Must have data to develop. Manufacturing problems are included in the historical data base (rework, scrap, etc.) The use of the “Learning Curve” has become almost universal throughout the aerospace industry since the 1930s. Last bullet comment—Do not want to project abnormal problems into the future.

109 Quantity Adjustment An attempt to normalize (adjust) the historical data base (as it relates to procurement quantities) to a constant base, in order to account for large changes in quantities When the item being procured has a large amount of fixed cost or is a common commercial item, then that quantity break is appropriate Curve would be 100% with no fixed cost As fixed cost increases, the curve slope % decreases. This tool accounts for the effect on cost of amortizing fixed costs (setup) over smaller or larger lot sizes. Determine the Curve Slope With No Fixed Cost $0 Curve = 100% As Fixed Cost Increases Curve Slope % Decrease

110 Material Material–purchased items/services which become part of the final, deliverable product Four common categories of material are as follows: Raw material—requires further processing. Subcontracted Items—assembled parts that have been offloaded to another supplier for manufacture. Outside processing. Purchased parts—parts processed from raw material that are bought complete. Define material cost and each of the four categories. Explain the difference between each of the four common material categories. Provide an example of each. Raw material inch Aluminum plate Subcontracted Item Wire Harness assembly off-loaded Machine plate - machine to PWR drawings Outside processing Painting Drop test Purchase Part Fuel Pump Flight Computer

111 Material Bill of Material (BOM)
The engineering drawings are the source of the BOM. An itemized listing of all the material items/services that are required to build a product. Determine the best value supplier and associated cost for the material item or serves. Typically the BOM is evaluated by validating a sample of the total parts or BOM. Use next viewfoil to explain a BOM. Explain that the source to develop a BOM is based on the Engineering drawing and other engineering documentation in order to determine the requirements. Next you determine if the requirement is a make or buy item/service. Then source selection is conducted to determine best value supplier and the associated cost for the item or serves. Evaluation of BOM. Generally an evaluation or review of BOM is not based on a review of each item in the BOM. It is generally based on a selected sample of items in the BOM and balance of the items are decremented based on the results of the sample. See next viewfoil.

112 Rate Verification Forward Pricing Rate Agreement
A written agreement negotiated between a contractor and the government to utilize certain rates or prices during a specified period in pricing contracts or modifications Represents reasonable projections of specific costs that may not easily be estimated for, identified with, or generated by a specific contract May include rates for labor, indirect costs, scrap, obsolescence, etc.

113 Rate Verification Government audits
Accounting and/or technical audit performed by a government agency Government accounting audit is requested when PWR does not have audit rights Government technical audit is required when supplier will not provide cost/pricing data to PWR (i.e., Labor hour history). PWR will request a rate or technical audit, only if PWR does not have audit rights.

114 Fact-Finding

115 PWR Fact-Find Questions
The following data is the standard supporting documentation the Cost Analysis Department requests when certified cost and pricing data is required: A summary description of the operation of the supplier's cost estimating system (New Projects & Existing/Repeat Projects). Cost breakdown based upon supplier's estimating system (Non-Recurring/Recurring-D.L.; Overhead; Material; Other Direct Cost; G&A; Profit, etc.). Provide basis of estimate (actual, history, estimate, etc.) for labor hours Priced Bill of Material a. Explanation of method and data used by the supplier in preparing the BOM b. Explanation of contingencies, if any. Explanation of method and data used by the supplier in preparation of direct labor hour forecast for this purchase order. Direct labor hour forecast by month and by unit or lot if respective production is involved. Basis for forecasting direct hourly rates (Engineering, Manufacturing, etc.).

116 PWR Fact-Find Questions
Basis for forecasting burden rates (Engineering, Manufacturing, etc.) Actual Burden rates experienced by year for the previous two calendar years. Negotiated burden rates experienced by year for the previous two calendar years and the Government agency with whom such rates were negotiated (i.e. DCAA) - if applicable. Analysis of burden pools by account and by year for the previous two calendar years classified by fixed and variable costs. Total of direct labor hours or dollars expended by year for the previous two calendar years. Forecast of direct labor hours or dollars for the period to be covered by and including the purchase order together with an outline of the basis of the forecast. Actual sales backlog at the beginning of the previous and the current calendar year. Profit substantiation. Was a learning curve applied? What type of curve is used (CUM. AVG. UNIT, etc.)

117 PWR Fact-Find Questions
How many hours were proposed for the first unit? Are there any contingencies in supplier's proposal for labor hours? Was there any learning curve applied to material costs? Provide support documentation for "driver" items representing 80% of material cost (i.e. Quote; P.O.; Inventory, etc.) Does proposed material provide for mortality? If so, applicable to all items? Does material cost include a handling charge or other burden application? Are there other contingencies in supplier's proposed material cost? If yes, please describe. Basis for forecasting G&A rate a. Actual G & A rate experienced by year for the previous two calendar years b. Negotiated burden rates experienced by year for the previous two calendar years and the Government agency with whom such rates were negotiated (i.e. DCAA) - if applicable Explanation of the difference between a & b - if applicable Analysis of G & A pools by account and by year for the previous two calendar years classified by fixed and variable costs.

118 PWR Fact-Find Questions
Other Cost - Provide documentation to support other cost items if applicable. Does the proposal contain any unallowable cost (FAR: )? If so, please identify. Provide documentation (actual cost or estimated cost at completion) on current or previous PWR procurements of the same or similar item.

119 PWR Technical Evaluation of Supplier Proposals

120 PWR Technical Evaluation Criteria
Technical Evaluations of supplier proposals form the foundation for subsequent price negotiations The Technical Evaluation consists of an evaluation of the supplier’s technical and cost proposals The Technical Evaluation of the supplier’s technical proposal is a comprehensive and responsive evaluation of the criteria set forth in the solicitation The Technical Evaluation of a supplier’s cost proposal is a review and assessment by qualified technical personnel of the following points: labor mix appropriateness including number of hours and labor category proposed; type and quantities of material proposed; special tooling and facilities proposed; and, reasonableness and appropriateness of proposed other direct costs (ODC’s).

121 Ogives and PTL/Funding Profiles

122 PWR Ogive Definition An Ogive is a frequency distribution of numerical data Ogives are normally represented on bell curves Example: If you are plotting 100 hours on a 20/80 Ogive 20 hours (100 x 20% = 20) would fall on the left side of the bell and 80 hours (100 x 80% = 80) on the right side Valid PWR / ProPricer Ogives: 10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10 PWR / ProPricer will spread the data between the start / stop months based on the selected Ogives

123 Program Termination Liability (PTL)

124 Background PWR Estimating Systems Manual Termination Liability Topics
What is Termination Liability Termination Liability Funding Termination Costs Termination Cost Risk Coverage Special Termination Cost Clause Estimating Termination Costs

125 Responsibility Estimating and Pricing must work with Contracts/Legal Services and Program Management to ensure that costs resulting from a potential termination are either a. Included in requested contract funding and submitted in the cost proposal. b. Covered by appropriate contractual language (such as a Special Termination Cost Clause). c. Accepted by management as potentially unrecoverable costs.

126 What is Termination Liability?
Termination liability is the maximum amount the Government will reimburse a contractor if a contract is terminated. It includes cost for contract work that has been incurred up to the termination date plus termination cost. In the case of a multi-year contract terminated before completion of the current fiscal year, termination liability includes costs for current year contract work prior to the termination and termination costs for both the current and out years.

127 Termination Liability Funding
For incrementally funded contracts, the contractor usually provides the Government an estimate of the funds required to cover the anticipated contract work plus enough funds to cover termination costs (not covered by special contract clauses) for each period of the contract. The Government will allocate funds to the contract for the current contract performance period based on the funding required. Failure of the contractor to adequately forecast termination costs and include them in the funding requirement may result in inadequate funds being made available to cover costs in the event the contract is terminated. If this situation occurs, the contractor may not be able to recover any incurred costs in excess of the funded amount.

128 Termination Costs There are eight categories of termination costs. Organizations should use these cost categories to help identify potential termination costs in their program and make provisions to minimize the financial risk associated with them. The eight different categories are Before termination costs. Costs continuing after termination (FAR (b)). Initial costs (FAR (c)). Loss of useful value (FAR (d)). Rental under unexpired leases (FAR (e)). Alterations of leased property (FAR (f)). Settlement expenses (FAR (g)). Subcontractor claims (FAR (h)).

129 Termination Cost Risk Coverage
A upcoming chart displays the termination costs that have been historically covered in the PWR termination estimate (calculated by leading labor and material) or by the special termination cost clause. Costs in the potentially uncovered category are not addressed by either of these methods. If a contract has no special termination cost clause, or has significant costs in the potentially uncovered category, then these costs need to be separately estimated and added to the PWR termination liability line values, (see Figure 8.7-1) covered by additional contract clauses, or accepted as potential risks by management.

130 Special Termination Cost Clause
Government contracts and RFPs sometimes include a special termination cost clause. This clause recognizes that if the contract is terminated there will be selected termination costs for which the Government will be obligated to provide additional funding. This clause usually contains a not to exceed funding limitation. Special termination costs are defined by Department of Defense (DoD) FAR Supplement Contracting agencies have different variations to the language covering the specific costs included in a special termination cost clause. Be sure to read the contract provisions to determine the costs that are covered by the clause.

131 Estimating Termination Costs
Estimating method-leading cost PWR typically calculates a termination liability line by leading costs for PWR labor, interdivisional labor, and supplier costs by set periods. Lead times are dependent on the particular circumstances of the individual program. This technique includes in the current funding request, costs for future periods for which PWR may be contractually liable. An example of the approach follows. PWR labor, associated overhead, and other costs are set forward a specific period of time, usually one to three months. The interorganizational costs are set forward a month, similar to PWR costs. Subcontract, supplier, and direct material costs are set forward a specific period of time, usually three months. This offset covers the subcontractor's and suppliers expenditures that have been performed but not yet billed to the prime contractor. For major subcontractors termination liability lines should be requested and compared to the internal calculations. Adjustments to the internal subcontract values should be made if required.

132 Estimating Termination Costs

133 PTL Recommendation Document current processes (All)
Investigate existing processes (DoD) Develop PTL tools (Review Questionnaire) Review Termination Liability costs with Programs Determine Program Termination Liability costs Price costs in the ProPricer System Review Termination Liability costs with Management Present Termination Liability values to customer

134 PTL Process Description
Typical Six Step PTL Process Identify the following elements of PTL for the Program life from the Business Operations Budgeting System Total Expenditures (i.e. MPM/SAP extract) Non Labor Costs, Budgeted value including common budget elements (i.e. G&A, COM and Fee) Labor Costs, calculated (mathematical difference of A less B). Determine PTL values Identify Labor and Non Labor lead values required to provide PTL coverage in months (Burn Rate) Before Termination Costs Costs Continuing After Termination (partial de-staffing only) Subcontractor Claims Identify any PTL Special Termination Cost Clause values Costs Continuing After Termination Settlement Expense Identify any potentially uncover costs Initial Costs Loss of Useful Value Rental Under Unexpired Leases Alterations of Leased Property Calculate a PTL by GFY quarter Review PTL values with Program Management Report PTL values to Upper Mgmt Review and update PTL values as required

135 Completing the PWR Proposal

136 Wrapping Up the Proposal
Create Draft /Prelim Run of Pricing Write technical proposal based on approved mockup Submit remaining graphics for login and formatting Check pricing input for completeness and consistency to proposal plan Draft BOEs Submit preliminary cost data for Pricing/Finance Management Approval Review program plan / risk analysis / T&Cs/cost/business plan with approving executives

137 Create Finished Proposal
Obtain IPT/process organizations approvals for cost estimates and BOEs Assemble final proposal Prepare briefing/documentation for executive approval Schedule Repro and Data Management effort Complete technical, management and cost proposal packages with all required backup Identify/confirm delivery arrangements

138 Proposal Submittal Submit for repro with instructions (include backup copies) Verify proposal completeness and prepare for delivery Deliver to customer

139 Prepare for Orals and Fact-Finding
Team prepares for orals (if required) Team responds to CRs & DRs (if any) BAFO follows same steps as above PM coordinates PA (or other) budget to support post submittal activities Develop BAFO strategy based on above

140 Negotiations PWR Legal/CA acts as lead to support ALL Negotiation activities Coordinate all meeting between customer & RD Documents all issues and responses Exchanges offers & counter offers Summarize cost impacts for Mgmt PM & functions support both as need Pricer updates C&P data & coordinates disclosures w/ CA Pricer performs sweeps & certs if applicable CA completes memo of negotiation

141 Change proposal

142 Change Proposals Changes occur for a variety of reasons/scenarios
PWR Customer driven change PWR generated change Supplier generated change Not all changes require an equitable adjustment Equitable adjustment can be schedule and/or price Adjustments can be increasing or decreasing Equitable adjustment changes generally are scope or schedule driven Terms & Conditions are not re-negotiable

143 Change Proposals Not competitive
Scope/schedule changes can be incorporated via an undefinitized change notice (proposal & negotiations to follow) A formal RFQ/RFP may be sent by PWR TINA requirements apply (aggregate value, i.e., $350K increase + $300K decrease = $650K TINA change value) It is not an opportunity to “Get Well.” The equitable adjustment must only consider the impact of the actual change.

144 Change Proposals Pursuant to PO “Changes” clause, supplier obligated to place change notice into work. Proposal & Negotiation Process should be timely (FAR requirement to be complete in less than 180 days – PWR Goal is 120 days) Supplier is obligated to present PWR with a fully documented change proposal within fifteen calendar days of PO change receipt.

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