Presentation on theme: "Research Using Open Access Resources and Search Systems Ben Hockenberry St. John Fisher College Delivered at Rochester Regional Library Council, Fairport,"— Presentation transcript:
Research Using Open Access Resources and Search Systems Ben Hockenberry St. John Fisher College Delivered at Rochester Regional Library Council, Fairport, NY Monday, Oct. 29, PM Licensed for re-use under CC-BYCC-BY
DEFINITIONS First, what are we talking about when we say “Open Access Resources?”
Definitions Open Access "Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder." (Suber 2004) Practical consensus on this definition is elusive, though formalized OA definitions mostly agree e.g. the Budapest, Berlin and Bethesda statementsBudapestBerlinBethesda
Definitions Gold OA Publisher-managed OA Journals or OA option for authors submitting to otherwise non-OA journals Green OA Author-initiated archiving in a repository These definitions are different from the colors used in SHERPA/RoMEO to define publishers’ policies regarding author self-archiving in repositories.
Definitions Repository Digital space for deposit of pre- and post-prints of journal articles and other scholarly output. Some are oriented to: discipline country of origin institution (or department) The last are often called Institutional Repositories, or IRs.
Definitions OA Mandate Many funders of research, particularly in government, now require that funded research be archived in a publicly accessible form, usually without embargo. NIH, Harvard, MIT, Research Councils UK, U. of Southampton. OA Mandates have led to significant expansions in the OA “market” as a whole. Embargo A period of time before access is “opened.” Many publishers require an embargo on post-prints or finalized publications.
What About Peer Review? Some OA materials are peer-reviewed, and some are not. Users need to be aware of what they're looking at: Indicators like "Refereed" or "Reviewed" Pre-Print vs. Post-Print
Pre-Prints Characteristics Original submitted manuscripts May or may not be accepted for publication Pre-peer-review Lack journal formatting Published for timeliness, particularly in the hard sciences Examples &hl=en&as_sdt=0, &hl=en&as_sdt=0,33
Post-Prints Characteristics Post-peer-review Post-acceptance for publication Lacks finalized journal formatting (page numbering may be different; in-text citations may require adjustment) Largely the same text as the final published version, but there may be slight differences Examples pdf pdf tml&identifier=ADA tml&identifier=ADA458969
Finalized Publications The version formatted for publication in the journal. Some publications publish exclusively for OA – i.e. “Gold OA.” Search engines may display a full-text link from a journal that provides older articles for free and paid access to new research. At other times, an author (or someone else) will post finalized articles to a personal site, which is picked up by search engines. Very few publications allow upload of finalized papers to the web or to an IR – so the version you see may not be there long!
Conference Proceedings Some institutions publish locally-held conference proceedings through repositories: A faculty member may also post a copy of their conference presentation, transcript or research findings to a repository: You may also find poster presentations in repositories: Conference papers may or may not be refereed – check main conference website if you need to know peer review status
Dissertations Dissertations may be found in many repositories, expanding access to these documents that are often otherwise locked in archives or available only through paid outlets like ProQuest Dissertations.
SEARCH SYSTEMS There are a lot of ways to search for open access articles, but the simplest way is using Google. Per Norris, Oppenheim and Roland (2008), searching with Google and Google Scholar was more than 7 times more likely to retrieve an open access article than using OAIster or OpenDOAR. I’ll demonstrate them, but recommend Google Scholar for most searchers.
OpenDOAR A directory of repositories. Contains a search interface to find repositories, and another search interface (using Google Custom Search) to find items in those repositories.
OAIster Powered by WorldCat Contains other types of digital collections, i.e. photos and other archive documents
DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) Searches exclusively journals that are OA Not a repository search Some journals are less stable; your mileage may vary
Google Scholar Links together published and OA versions of documents Keyword indexing of documents results in far more results with more capacity to narrow a search Sheer size delivers added bonuses: cited-by functions and bibliography linking Customizable for libraries/institutions with link resolvers It just works
REFERENCES This is just a taste of the literature out there on Open Access. Check out the Digital Scholarship bibliographies:
References Finding OA Articles Norris, M., Oppenheim, C., & Rowland, F. (2008). Finding open access articles using Google, Google Scholar, OAIster and OpenDOAR. Online Information Review, 32(6), 709–715. doi: / Baldwin, V. (2009). Using Google Scholar to search for online availability of a cited article in engineering disciplines. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, 56. doi: /F4WM1BBC
References General Background on OA Suber, P. (2004). A very brief introduction to open access. Retrieved from Budapest Open Access Initiative Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Scientific Knowledge erklarung/ erklarung/
References Further Reading Björk, B.-C., & Paetau, P. (2012). Open access to the scientific journal literature: Status and challenges for the information systems community. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 38(5), 39– /JunJul12_Bjork_Paetau.pdf 12/JunJul12_Bjork_Paetau.pdf Cassella, M. (2010). Institutional repositories: An internal and external perspective on the value of IRs for researchers’ communities. LIBER Quarterly, 20(2), 210–225. BN%3ANL%3AUI%3A BN%3ANL%3AUI%3A
References Further Reading Gargouri, Y., Lariviere, V., Gingras, Y., Carr, L., & Harnad, S. (2012). Green and gold open access percentages and growth, by discipline. 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (STI), 5-8 September, 2012, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Montréal, CA (p. 11). Presented at the 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (STI), Montréal, Québec: Social Science and Humanities Research Council (Canada). Retrieved from Royster, P. (2012). Up from Under the “Open Access” Bus. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 1(2). doi:http://dx.doi.org/ /