Presentation on theme: "Latin America and the U.S.. The Monroe Doctrine Western Hemisphere is the United States' sphere of interest. Warns European nations that the United States."— Presentation transcript:
Latin America and the U.S.
The Monroe Doctrine Western Hemisphere is the United States' sphere of interest. Warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs. 1865: U.S. government exerted diplomatic and military pressure in support of the Mexican President Benito Juárez. This support led to a successful revolt against the Emperor Maximilian, who had been placed on the throne by the French government. President Theodore Roosevelt promptly proclaimed the right of the United States to exercise an “international police power.” U. S. Marines were sent into Santo Domingo in 1904, Nicaragua in 1911, and Haiti in 1915, to keep the Europeans out.
NAFTA The North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. Within 10 years of the implementation of the agreement, all US-Mexico tariffs would be eliminated except for some U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico that were to be phased out within 15 years. Most U.S.-Canada trade was already duty free. NAFTA also seeks to eliminate non-tariff trade barriers From 1994 to 2007, U.S. net manufacturing employment has declined by 3,654,000, and during this period several other free trade agreements have been concluded or expanded.
The War on Drugs Begins in 1969 U.S. government has spent over $2.5 trillion fighting the War on Drugs. The U.S. is the largest consumer of drugs. 90% of cocaine reaches the U.S. through its southern border. Violence in Mexico has gotten so bad that it is spilling into states such as Arizona. Bush administration's 2002 goal of reducing all illegal drug use by 25% led to unprecedented numbers of marijuana-related arrests, pot use only declined 6% (and the use of other drugs actually increased). In Mexico 5,300 people were killed in drug-related crimes in 2008.
The War on Drugs Bolivia: There have been DEA agents who, carrying out espionage, financed rogue groups with the intention of taking the lives of [Bolivian government] officials, though not the President's. A peasant in certain remote parts of Colombia has a choice: grow corn, rice, potatoes and vegetables for prices that fluctuate and sometimes barely make it worthwhile, or grow coca, safe in the knowledge of a handsome return. Eradication campaigns in Afghanistan and Colombia have left drug production unaffected but alienated locals, gifting political capital to insurgents.
Cuba 1898: US defeats Spain, which gives up all claims to Cuba and cedes it to the US : US occupies Cuba following a rebellion led by Jose Miguel Gomez. 1909: Jose Miguel Gomez becomes president following elections supervised by the US, but is soon tarred by corruption. 1912: US forces return to Cuba to help put down black protests against discrimination. 1959: Castro leads a 9,000-strong guerrilla army into Havana, forcing Batista to flee. Castro becomes prime minister. 1959: Castro meets Richard Nixon who wrote that the US had no choice but to try to "orient" the leftist leader in the "right direction".
Cuba 1960: All US businesses in Cuba are nationalized without compensation; US breaks off diplomatic relations and imposes a trade embargo. 1961: US backs invasion by Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs. 1961: The CIA begins to make plans to assassinate Castro. 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1993: US tightens embargo 1996: Embargo made permanent in response to US planes being shot down.
Mexico , US helps Texas revolt. 1845, US offers to buy NM & CA. Mexico refuses & US invades; takes the land. Monroe Doctrine was used to help the revolt against the French in , US railroads are built by labor of 60% Mexicans & 16, US invades Mexico. Great Depression, Americans are forced to work farms in the Southwest & view Mexican migrants as competition for jobs. 1954, “Operation Wetback” 1969, War on Drugs begins
Panama On November 4, 1903, the immediate support of the USA secured the Declaration of Independence of Panama from Colombia. In return, the Panamanian signed three week later the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty, granting the USA sovereign rights over the Inter oceanic canal that would be built in the following year.
Chile US sent in about 100 people with assigned tasks to prevent Allende`s victory. In order to influence the public opinion, the CIA embarked on a propaganda campaign through radio, TV, posters, wall paintings, and pamphlets, with a goal of connecting communist atrocities to Allende. Covert American activity was present in almost every major election in Chile in the decade between 1963 and The CIA would find military officers willing to support a coup and provide them with support. They could then call new elections in which Allende could be defeated. In Sept. 1970, Nixon found that an Allende regime in Chile would not be acceptable & authorized $10 million to stop Allende from coming to power or unseat him. The kidnapping and death of General René Schneider shocked the public and increased support of the Chilean Constitution. Schneider was the army chief commander and a constitutionalist, which meant he would not support a coup. CIA documents indicate that while the CIA had sought his kidnapping, his killing was never intended.
Nicaragua Initially invited by the Liberals in 1855 to join their struggle against the Conservatives, an American named William Walker and his "Filibusterers" seized the presidency in In 1857, the Liberals and Conservatives united to drive Walker out of office. In 1909 the United States provided political support to Conservative-led forces rebelling against President Zelaya and intervened militarily to protect American lives and property. With the exception of a 9-month period in , the United States maintained troops in Nicaragua from 1912 until The United States suspended aid to Nicaragua in 1981 after US backed dictator is overthrown. Later the Reagan administration provided assistance to the Nicaraguan resistance (Contras) & in 1985 imposed an embargo on U.S.- Nicaraguan trade. During the war against the Sandinista government, the contras carried out many violations of human rights. 200,000 dead at hands of contra death squads. US sold arms to Iran to fund the Contras who funded themselves with drug money from Nicaragua & Panama. The drugs were likely sold in the US.