2Ch. 12: Foreign Affairs in the Young Republic E Pluribus Unum is Latin for “Out of many, One”. It is the national motto.Great Seal of the United StatesHow many stars are there?The 13 Stars and Stripes represent the original 13 states.How many stripes are there?The bald eagle represents freedom and power.zesThe arrows symbolize war.The olive branch symbolizes peace.
3Foreign Policy“Foreign” means that it involves other nations or governments.A “policy” is a plan or course of action that a government intends to follow (one example – a policy of isolationism)Thus, “foreign policy” is a plan or course of action that a government follows when dealing with other parts of the world.IsolationismInvolvement
4The Role of the President One of the main responsibilities that presidents have is setting foreign policy for the nation.In fact, President Bush’s presidency has been defined by his foreign policy with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and his dealings with countries like North Korea and Iran.
5President Barack Obama President Barack Obama had relatively little foreign policy experience when he was elected president.As president, he has had to deal with foreign policy decisions made by the last president, George W. Bush. It is now his responsibility to decide what course America takes regarding the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.President Barack Obama
6President Barack Obama Since taking office, Obama has sought to improve America’s image around the world and improve its relations with other nations, including countries that America has had a poor relationship with in the past.
7Vice-President Joe Biden One reason for Obama choosing Joe Biden to be his Vice-President was because Biden served as the Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, meaning that he had a lot of experience dealing with issues involving foreign countries.Obama sent Biden to Iraq in August and September of 2009 to meet with Iraq’s leaders and discuss with them Iraq’s future. He helps get Obama’s message across when Obama can’t be there personally.Vice-President Joe Biden
8Secretary of StateThe Secretary of State is responsible for advising the President on foreign policy decisions and meeting with foreign leaders to help improve relations between the U.S. and other countries.Se
9Secretary of State Hillary Clinton The Secretary of State often travels around the world to meet with foreign leaders.The current Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, is well-known because of her recent run for the U.S. presidency and for being a former first lady.The Secretary of State is considered to be the most important member of the Executive Branch after the President and Vice-President.Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
10Western Hemisphere (home to the Americas- North & South)
11The U.S. claimed less land in the Americas as its own than Britain or Spain, which both maintained large colonial empires in the New World.
12George WashingtonHe established the policy of isolationism during his presidency in an effort to keep our nation from being destroyed by foreign conflict.
13Why a policy of “neutrality”? There are three main reasons why Washington followed a policy of neutrality (not taking sides in disputes between nations):1. America had no standing army.2. America was surrounded by unfriendly countries.3. America couldn’t afford to get involved in Europe’s conflicts (i.e. the war between Britain and France)
14How does a nation achieve “neutrality” How does a nation achieve “neutrality”? Answer: Follow a policy of IsolationismWashington established isolationism as the foundation of American foreign policy.Isolationism is a policy of avoiding political or military agreements with other nations. By not entering into agreements, the United States attempted to stay out of conflicts between other nations (It didn’t take sides).
15John Adams’ Presidency President John Adams tried to follow Washington’s policy of neutrality.In 1794, he sent Supreme Court Justice John Jay to London to bring an end to British interference with American trade ships and to resolve disputes between the two countries that had existed since the end of the Revolutionary War.
16The Jay TreatyJohn Jay negotiated what would be known as the Jay Treaty.It improved relations between the U.S. and Britain by settling old disputes, such as Britain agreeing to turn over control of forts located within American territory.However, the French felt betrayed and began attacking and seizing American merchant ships headed for Britain.
17President Adams sent three envoys (representatives) to France to convince the French to stop their attacks on American ships.
18The XYZ AffairFrench Foreign Minister Talleyrand refused to meet with the American envoys. Instead, they were met by secret agents, later identified only as X, Y, and Z.The agents said that no peace talks would be held unless Talleyrand received a large sum of money as tribute (a bribe).The Americans were insulted by the demand.
19The XYZ AffairCongress soon voted to recruit an army of 10,000 men and build 12 new ships for the nation’s tiny navy.The slogan “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!” was heard everywhere as Americans prepared for war.
20John AdamsWhat should President Adams do to protect American ships?
21Adams Sends a Peace Mission to France By the time the peace mission arrived, Napoleon Bonaparte had taken over the French government and he was eager to make peace with both Britain and the U.S.
22A Peace Agreement with France With Napoleon Bonaparte leading France, Adams was able to broker a peace agreement. The alliance between France and the U.S., which had caused problems between America and Britain, was ended. In exchange, France did not have to pay for all the American ships that it had seized.
23John Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic-Republican THE ELECTION OF 1800WinnerJohn Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic-Republican
24Ship Seizures Continue Unfortunately, France and Britain would soon be at war again and both sides would resume seizing American ships that were trading with their enemy.In addition, the British began kidnapping American sailors and forcing them to serve in the British navy, a practice known as impressment.
25The British claimed that the men they impressed were British deserters (sailors that had left their military posts).
26Thomas JeffersonHow should President Jefferson deal with ship seizures and impressment?
27Embargo Act of 1807When diplomacy (negotiation) with Britain and France failed, Jefferson chose the isolationist approach of cutting off all trade with other nations.He passed the Embargo Act of An embargo is a government order that stops merchant ships from leaving and entering a country’s ports.
28Embargo Act of 1807Under the Embargo Act of 1807, no foreign ships could enter U.S. ports, and no American ships could leave, except to trade at other U.S. ports.Jefferson hoped that stopping trade would hurt France and Britain so much that they would both agree to leave American ships alone.
29The Embargo FailsThe embargo proved more painful to Americans than to anyone in Europe.Around 55,000 sailors lost their jobs while their ships lay deserted in docks, unable to trade with the outside world.In 1809, Congress repealed the Embargo Act. American ships returned to the open seas, and French and British warships continued to attack them.
30Problems with BritainAs Britain continued to seize American ships and impress American sailors, the U.S. would face another problem.There was also considerable evidence that Britain was supplying Native Americans with guns that they then used to fight and kill American settlers.Many Americans were outraged and called for another war against Britain.
31After the battle of Tippecanoe Creek, the American soldiers discovered that the Indians were armed with British guns.
32James MadisonWhat should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?
33War Hawks War Hawks were Americans who wanted war with Britain. They were often from the South and the West.They hoped that the war would stop the British from arming Native Americans who fought western settlers moving into their lands.They also hoped to make Canada (which was still part of Britain) part of the U.S. by invading and seizing it.
34War of 1812President James Madison ended America’s policy of isolationism.On July 17, 1812, America declared war on Britain.At the time, America had an army of only 7,000 poorly trained men and a navy of only 16 ships.Both sides found the war to be harder than expected.
35War of 1812American forces crossed into Canada three times and each time they were forced back.In August 1814, the British army invaded Washington, D.C.
36The British burned several public buildings, including the Capitol and the White House. President Madison had to flee for his life.
38The Star-Spangled Banner After capturing Washington, D.C., the British attacked the port city of Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry.American lawyer Francis Scott Key watched as the British bombarded Forth McHenry on September 13, 1814.The bombardment lasted all night and the next morning Key was thrilled to see the American flag still waving over the fort.It inspired him to write “The Star-Spangled Banner,” which later became our national anthem.
39Battle of New OrleansOne of the greatest American victories during the war was the Battle of New Orleans.General Andrew Jackson’s men killed or wounded about 2,000 British soldiers, while only about 20 American soldiers were killed or wounded.The victory made Jackson a war hero, which would later aid him when he ran for the presidency.
41The End of the War of 1812Although both sides claimed victory, neither Britain nor the U.S. really won the War of 1812.The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, settled none of the issues that had led to the fighting.Instead, the problems of impressment and ship seizures faded away as peace settled over Europe.
42As you recall, Spain claimed much of the land in North and South America (shown here in green). Latin Americans within these Spanish colonies were inspired by America’s war of independence from Great Britain.One by one, Latin American nations would rise up against Spain and gain their independence.
431811- Paraguay1816- Argentina1818- Chile1819- Colombia1821- MexicoVenezuela1822- Ecuador1823- United Provinces of Central America1824- Peru1825- Bolivia1828- Uruguay
44Ensuring Independence Americans were excited about the newly independent nations in Latin America.Britain was also pleased because Spain had previously not allowed it to trade with its colonies, now it could.However, other European countries were not so pleased and began to talk of helping Spain recover its lost colonies.
45Britain & the United States Join Forces in Support of Latin America In 1823, Britain asked the U.S. to join it in sending a message to the leaders of Europe who sought to retake Latin America, telling them to leave Latin America alone.President James Monroe asked former presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for advice.Thomas JeffersonJames Madison
46James MonroeWhat should President Monroe do to support the new Latin American nations?
47The Monroe DoctrinePresident Monroe issues what becomes known as the Monroe Doctrine.The Monroe Doctrine was a warning for European nations to keep their hands off America. It carried with it the hidden message that the U.S. was no longer a weak collection of states, but a strong and confident nation that should be respected by the world.