Presentation on theme: "War of 1812. Thomas Jefferson The Lewis and Clark expedition was a great success for President Thomas Jefferson. However, England and France were still."— Presentation transcript:
Thomas Jefferson The Lewis and Clark expedition was a great success for President Thomas Jefferson. However, England and France were still at war. This fact was continuing to give America problems.
Neutrality in Foreign Affairs Just like presidents George Washington and John Adams, Thomas Jefferson tried to stay neutral in foreign affairs and not take any country’s side. I want to take Washington’s advise and stay neutral in foreign affairs
American Shipping Over time however, remaining neutral in the war between France and England was becoming very hard for America. Once again, both France and England began interfering (messing) with American shipping.
England started kidnapping men aboard American ships and holding them prisoners hoping to get information out of them. The Americans said being imprisoned aboard the English battleships was “floating hell”.
France Seizing Ships On top of England impressing (kidnapping) American sailors, France kept taking American ships to stop them from trading with England. It was a mess and America was struggling to not get involved in the war.
American sailors imprisoned aboard English ships
Issues with France and England Jefferson tried to convince both France and Britain to leave American ships alone. However, all of his efforts failed. Between 1803 and 1807, Britain seized at least a thousand American ships. France captured about 500. Please stop
Embargo Act Jefferson was so frustrated he made a very painful choice. He decided to place an embargo (a complete stop on trade with other nations). So Jefferson created the Embargo Act of 1807, stopping all trade with other countries.. Its an Embargo!!! STOP all trade with foreign countries!!
Embargo Act Under the Embargo Act of 1807, no foreign ships could enter U.S. ports, and no American ships could leave, except to go trade within other U.S ports. Jefferson hoped that stopping trade would be so painful to France and Britain they would agree to leave American ships alone. Stopping All trade will show them
We are not allowed to trade with France and England anymore Its because of the embargo What’s the matter Frank?
Picture of a shipping port where goods are traded onto boats
The Embargo Act of 1807 The Embargo Act of 1807 that Jefferson passed proved to hurt America more than anyone else. Newspapers published cartoons that expressed the Embargo act. They noticed that embargo spelled backwards was “O-grab-me”. This was used to suggest that Jefferson’s act was holding merchants back from making money and trading.
No No No… it’s a just joke, “O Grab Me” is embargo spelled backwards
James Madison becomes President Although the issues with France and England seizing American ships were still continuing, Jefferson’s two terms as president were up in 1809. Americans needed a new president so they elected James Madison “the father of the Constitution” to be the 4 th president of the U.S. The job of fixing the nations problems was now up to him.
Madison and the War Hawks President Madison tried desperately to stop France and England from attacking American ships. Americans were getting frustrated and many wanted to go to war. Two Congressmen named Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun supported war so much that they were nicknamed the “War Hawks”
John, I’m telling you we need war You are such a War Hawk Henry
Canada and the War Hawks The War Hawks believed that driving the British out of Canada would make all of America safer. Once that was done, America could add Canada to the United States. Hoever, Madison continued trying to avoid war. Henry Clay John C. Calhoun
The War of 1812 Eventually enough was enough…Madison was fed up with the attacks on shipping. In 1812 President Madison chose to get rid of the idea of neutrality. At the request of the President Madison,Congress exercised their power and declared war on Britain. This was a very bold move since America only had an army of 7,000 men and a navy of only 16 ships.
Marching onto Canada! After war was declared in 1812, President James Madison ordered a troop of American soldiers to Canada in an effort to push out the British, but each time the American soldiers had to turn back. The British in Canada were too strong. On to Canada.. again
Why do those Americans think they can push us out of Canada
Oliver Hazard Perry One of the only American victories in the quest to take over Canada was on Lake Erie. This victory was when American naval officer Oliver Hazard Perry defeated a fleet of six British ships.
Oh no…its American naval General Oliver Hazard Perry!
Burning the Washington D.C Meanwhile in August of 1814, another British army invaded Washington D.C. The British decided to destroy the U.S source of power. They burned the Capitol and White House. President Madison was forced to flee for his life.
Francis Scott Key Next the British attacked the port city of Baltimore, Maryland. On September 13, an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key watched as the British bombed Fort McHenry. The bombing lasted all night and yet the American flag was still flying. When poet Francis Scott Key saw the flag still flying he was so deeply moved that he wrote the famous poem titled “The Star-Spangled Banner”
I will start the poem… “Oh, say can you see…. the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, gave proof through the night that our flag was still there” ….hmmm sounds good
Battle of New Orleans The British army now focused on the port city of New Orleans. American general Andrew Jackson defended the city with any army of 7,000 militiamen, free African-Americans, Indians, and pirates.
Andrew Jackson In January of 1815, more than 7,500 British troops marched into battle with Jackson’s army. Jackson’s troops met them with deadly fire, turning the battle field into a “sea of blood.” Some 2,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded, compared to only 20 Americans.
Treaty of Ghent The Battle of New Orleans was the greatest American victory in the war of 1812. However, the Battle of New Orleans was unnecessary. Two weeks earlier, American and British diplomats had meet in Ghent, Belgium and signed a peace treaty ending the war. This new never reached New Orleans in time. So, the Battle of New Orleans happened after the war was already over!!!
Whaaaat!!!!! The Treaty of Ghent ended the war a few days ago! Are you saying we fought in New Orleans for nothing!
Results of the War After the War of 1812, both Britain and American claimed they won the war. However, neither country really won the war. Plus, the treaty of Ghent settled none of the issues that started the war in the first place.
Mexico Revolts! After the excitement of the War of 1812. James Monroe became the 5 th president of the United States after James Madison in 1817. When he became president countries ranging from Mexico to the tip south America were rebellion for independence from Spain. James Monroe asked former presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison if America should help Latin America. Both presidents wanted to support Latin America’s fight for independence.
Monroe Doctrine. Monroe developed what was called the Monroe Doctrine that told Europe that the nations of North and South America were not to be considered for future colonization by Europe. This meant that Europe should never look to get/control more land in the Western Hemisphere ( North and South America. )
Hands off Europe! You can’t claim any more land here in the Americas!! Yeah right Monroe
Impacts of the War of 1812 Following the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine, Americans experienced a strong surge in American nationalism (pride in one’s country). They felt that in many ways the war of 1812 was “the second war of independence.” Plus, the Monroe Doctrine told the world that the United States was no longer weak but instead a strong nation that deserved respect.
This time period of increased nationalism (pride for one’s country) has become known as The Era of Good Feeling