Presentation on theme: "Hee-chan Lew Korea National University of Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Hee-chan Lew Korea National University of Education firstname.lastname@example.org Some Characteristics in Korean National Curriculum and its Revising ProcessHee-chan LewKorea National University of Education
2Topics 7th National Curriculum Revising Process Nature, Structure, Contents, Guide line for instruction and evaluation, College Entrance Examination (CSAT)Revising ProcessRevision Period, Revising Team, Influencing factors in determining mathematics curriculumSocial Background of KoreaSome lessons from TIMSS report
3Social Background Parents’ Concern on Education Education: The most important factor to understand Korean Society.Korean parents are willing to submit themselves to their children’s education.KEDI(2004): in 2000Government’s expense for public education is 30 billion US$Parents’ expense for out-of-school programs: 37 billion US$ (10% of their total income)
4Out-of-School Programs Status of out-of-school program in society84.1% of students (Elementary 91.1%, Junior High 81.5, Senior High 70.2%) go to extracurricular programs“Their children must study harder than other students to enter better universities”“A better university is a shortcut to a better future”Competition-Oriented SocietyOld tradition
5Examination Tradition In 958 AD, “Koryeo ” Kingdom ( ) accepted from China the formal examination system to select government officials, which was kept even during the next “Chosun ” Kingdom ( ) for 950 years.Pass to the examination was the most honorable event of the person and his family
6“Education was our only hope ” The Poster of the Special Exhibition of Educational Materials for the 60th Anniversary of the restoration of independence:“Education was our only hope” is a pregnant one-sentence to represent the 60 years of Korean Society
7What is learned in out-of-school program? Techniques vs. Abilities 70-90 % of students study mathematics 1-2 hours almost every day at their out-of-school programsThey learn technical skills and knowledge for eventually preparing for the college entrance examination rather than cultivating mathematical abilitiesThey learn techniques to select correct answers in various objective tests.
8International TestWe worry that this kind of out-of-school studies seems to be one of the main reasons of Korean students’ high achievement in TIMSS, TIMSS-R and PISAOther presumed reasons:Korean teachers teach systematicallyKorean math curriculum favors TIMSSKorea Scholastic Ability Test is similar to PISAStudents study hard in their schools to enter better universities or for other purposesetc.
9Math Education after TIMSS There were many changes after TIMSS7th National Curriculum issued on December 1997Focusing on students’ problem solving abilitiesSchool Reform Movement in the late of 1990sOpen EducationPerformance AssessmentComputer use in classroom
10Three factors for change Gradual change in mathematics education since 1980 to support the economic development of 1970s and 1980sFrom “theoretical” mathematics to “practical” mathematicsTIMSS reportReflection on the weak points of math classesImpact of foreign curricula such as of USA & Great Britain
11TIMSS reportTIMSS provided an opportunity for Korean Society to reflect on the educational environment on the whole through a multivariate analysis with teachers, institutions as well as students.Korean mathematics education seems to have many serious weak points, despite of students' very proud achievement.
12Affective Characteristics: Lesson from TIMSS Report Korean students' affective characteristics was not friendly to mathematics compared with other countries.In the case of the 8th grade, Korea was one of the lowest countries in the confidence and interest levels.This result is also being repeated in the current PISA test.
13Achievement Difference: Lesson from TIMSS Report There is a significant difference in the achievement level between male and female, and city and rural areaA serious problem with respect to an equal opportunity in mathematics education.Traditional custom guides girls not to go to the mathematical fields.Generally rural area, compared with city area, has an educationally inferior environment.
14Teaching Style: Lesson from TIMSS Report Whole class activities under teachers' control is the first consideration in the style of organizing classes89% of students, the largest rate, thought that whole class lesson with teacher’s explanation is the most frequent style.Only 11%, the lowest rate, of students thought that activities worked in pairs or small groups with assistance from teachers is the most frequent style.
15Technology: Lesson from TIMSS Report Korean math teachers were the most negative in using computer and calculator in their classes and problem solving process93% of teachers and 96% of students never used computers and calculators in their math classes, which was the highest among TIMSS countries
16Goals for learning mathematics: Lesson from TIMSS Report Many math teachers do not consider mathematical application and reasoning ability as important goals for students.Korea belongs to countries whose rate was very low.Teachers seem not to understand well the reason why problem solving should be emphasized in mathematics education
17Evaluation Method: Lesson from TIMSS Report Critics have been proposed that the objective items might give a better chance for Korean students to get higher scores than other nations’ students because Korean students were familiar with an objective test.
18The 7th curriculum Issued in Dec 31 1997 to reflect: Reform movement of mathematics education throughout the world, particularly of USAReconsideration of learning methods and contents school mathematics has emphasized for a long timeLessons from TIMSS reportNational goals for the construction of an advanced civilized societyIndividual differences in abilities, needs, and interests of students
19Nature: practical mathematics The new curriculum emphasizes practical mathematics such asproblem solvingapplication and modeling of mathematicsreasoningIt contrasts sharply with the 3rd curriculum issued in 1973 which emphasized mathematical knowledge as theoretical aspect
20Gradual change since 1980The change has been done gradually since the 4th curriculum issued in 1980:4th: problem solving5th: problem solving6th: problem solving, technology7th: problem solving, reasoning, communication, technology, connection, modelingThe influence of USA for Korean mathematics curriculum
21Old Kingdom PeriodKorea has a long history of emphasizing theoretical mathematics for a selective examinationIn 958, the "Koryeo" Kingdom ( ) introduced mathematics into its examination system to select middle level technical government officials.They have to memorize many Chinese mathematical classics including “Nine Chapters on Mathematical Art” for 7-9 years in schools.
221st Curriculum1st curriculum issued in 1955 professed to emphasize practical problem solving in real life under the influence of the American pragmatism and Dewey's educational philosophy.However, real situation was different because most of textbook authors were pure mathematicians and the college entrance examination were not practically oriented .
232nd & 3rd Curriculum2nd curriculum (1963) emphasized more formal and systematical mathematics.3rd curriculum (1973) accepted the new mathematics movement totally, emphasizing set language, mathematical structures and logical rigorousnessThe theoretical mathematics reached to the highest points.
25Instruction under 7th curriculum The 7th curriculum emphasizes various types of instruction to improve efficiency and significance of students' mathematical learning.It recommends that students should be able to experience the joy of discovery and maintain their interest in mathematics in their classrooms
26Evaluation under 7th curriculum Mathematical power should be evaluated by the following methods in their classrooms:to focus on students' understanding of a problem and the problem-solving process as well as its results;to focus on student's abilities to think and solve problems in a flexible, diverse and creative fashion;
27Schooling system & Students number Korea has educational systemElementary 6 years, Junior High 3 years, Senior High 3 years, College 4 yearsWe have about 400,000 students in each gradeAlmost 100 % students graduate Senior High schoolsAt 11 grade, they choose one of the Liberal Arts track or Science trackThe ratio of students of Liberal Arts track and Science track is 2:1
28Structure The 7th curriculum have two parts: The compulsory core curriculum learned in the first 10 school years called “people common educational period”The elective curriculum learned in 11 and 12 grades by choosing some among 6 subjects such as:Real-World Math, Math I, Math II, Calculus, Statistics and Probability, and Discrete Math
29StructureThe compulsory core curriculum is to teach same contents to all studentsThe elective curriculum has two kinds of selective subject:General-selective: a subject to strengthen cultural literacy and connection to real worldReal-World MathematicsDeep-selective: 5 subjects related with college entrance examinationMath I, Math II, Calculus, Statistics and Probability, and Discrete Math
30Structure of the 7th Curriculum SchoolElementaryJunior HighSenior HighGrade123456789101112Level1a1b2a2b3a3b4a4b5a5b6a6b7a7b8a8b9a9b10a10bCurriNameCompulsory CoreCurriculumSelectiveSubjectMathematics(general-selective) Real World Math(deep selective)Math I,Math II,Calculus,Probability & Statistic,Discrete Mathematics
31Level PromotionThe compulsory core curriculum has 20 levels. Students are promoted by a level-transfer test administered by schools at the end of semester.This system converts from the laissez-fair policy which guarantees automatic promotion to the controlling policy.Students who fail the level transfer test by scoring below 60% must take the extra- course offered by schools during the vacation of the semester.
32Enrichment and Supplement Program To avoid unnecessary competition and a sense of incongruity among students and parents, skipping levels is not permittedFor advanced students and low achievers, special enrichment and supplementary sections will be provided during the course at the teacher's discretion.
33Time AllotmentTime allotted to Mathematics of 1-10 grades is 131 class hours in average per year.It is the largest amount of time allotment second only to Korean, of which time allotment is 188 hours in average per year.In Grades 11 & 12, the time allotment depends on the kinds of students’ track for College Entrance Examination:“Science” and “Liberal art”
34Time Allotment School Elementary Junior High Senior High Grade 1 2 3 4 56789101112Curri NameCompulsory CoreCurriculumSelectiveClass hours*Per year**120136102Liberal ArtsScience272Science272Class hoursper week3-4Science 4*1 class hour of Elementary, Junior High and Senior High is 40, 45, 50 minutes respectively** 1 year is 34 weeks
35Contents of Grades 1-10The Compulsory mathematics curriculum consists of the six strands:Number & Operation, Geometry, Measuring, Probability & Statistics, Letter & Expression, and Pattern & FunctionUnlike USA, Korea does not distinguish content strand and process strand.Only exception is “problem solving” but, it is in “Letters and Expression” strand.
36Class Hours classified by Strands RatioNumber and Operation44834.2%Geometry29022.1%Measuring15812.1%Probability and Statistics987.5%Letter and Expression19715.0%Pattern and Function1199.1%Total1310100%
37Class Hours classified by Strands and Grades 12345678910Number & Operation746263468058594432243425132115Geometry11221618352619483029Measuring1417122023Probability & StatisticsLetter & Expression3928274331Pattern & Function33Sum120100136102
38Number and Operation Class hours classified by big ideas and grades ElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Natural Number746263467051272017131826920.5Fraction & Decimal Fraction3626423132241209.2Integer & Rational Number1612251.9Real & Complex Number2115342.6Sum8058594444834.2Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)
39Geometry Class hours classified by big ideas and grades ElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Spatial Sense13111612675.1Properties of Figures143324281918211514411.0Deductive Proof173029544.1Coordinate Geometry251.9Sum2235263223344829022.1Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)
40Measuring Class hours classified by big ideas and grades ElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Measuring with Units221613201417181068.1Quantity Sense and Estimation332.5Trigonometric Ratio110.8Linear Programming0.6Sum2415122315812.1Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)
41Probability and Statistics Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)Big IdeasElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Diagram and Graphs453.4Probability14241.8Basic Statistics13292.2Sum18987.5
42Letter and Expression Class hours classified by big ideas and grades ElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Making Expression141713503.8Equation & Inequality1225182115786.0Factorization0.9Problem Solving Strategy574.4Sum2216392827433119715.0Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)
43Pattern and Function Class hours classified by big ideas and grades ElementaryJunior HighS. H.Total12345678910Pattern Finding161.2Ratio & Proportion2317292.2Elementary Function1813141511564.3Trigonometric Function1.4Sum33241199.1Class Hours per year: 1310 (1st grade, 102; 9th grade, 120; others, 136)
44College Entrance Examination and Mathematics Curriculum AreaExamination ScopeNumber of itemsTotal TimeType of problemsType A(130,000)(100,000)MathⅠ 40%MathⅡ 40%Select 1 among Calculus, Statistics and probability, Discrete math 20%30 items100 MinutesChoice:70%,Short Answer:30%Type B(270,000)(300,000)Math I
46Revising TeamMOE names one person in a university or a research institute as the chief of the revising team and requests the chief to construct the revising team7th: one professor of SKK UniversityThe newly developed: The director of Korea Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation (KICE)The chief has an important role in the selection process of other 6-7 members who are all professors or researchers
47Activities of the Revising Team The team holds a conference to reflect various opinions from various individual or groups like academic circles or society and math teacher’s union or groupsThe team makes questionnaire and interview with teachers, researchers, parents, students, administrators to appreciate national or societal goals and to select contents and their sequence.
48Consulting TeamThe team has the consulting team with teachers and professors to consult various problems in the process of revising the curriculum.Several meetings are held to respond to questions and some issues raised by the revising team
49Meetings to reflect various opinions The mathematics education society invites the chief of the team to introduce the draft of the curriculum at the annual meeting of the Society to provide some feedback to the team.The team holds seminars on the draft of the curriculum 5-6 times at the focal universities in the local areas to reflect some ideas of the local communities of mathematics education.
50Reviewing CommitteeMOE organizes the reviewing committee with professors and teachers to review the final draft corrected by the revising team based on the various opinions collected from various meetings.Reviewing Committee invites the revising team in the reviewing process to discuss or to debate some key issues.
51Public HearingAfter finishing the whole reviewing process, the revising team holds a public hearing to report the final draft to the public.
52Important Factors in Revising Curriculum Analysis of the previous curriculum executed in classrooms.Students’ understanding levelLogical sequence of contentsForeign countries’ curriculumNational and social needsRequest of academic circleRelevance of amount of learning
53ConclusionThis has summarized the change of mathematics education and the process for the change made in Korea after TIMSS.The main focus is on the practical mathematics.The national strategy to construct a highly developed country in the near future.Practical Mathematics is tool for propelling the development of science and for solving quantitative and qualitative problems faced on people in their lives.
54ConclusionMore students have to leave school absorbing mathematics and having confidence.Until now, school mathematics is considered as only a subject for college entrance examination.Many students think continual learning of mathematics is meaningless and elementary mathematics is enough.We have to stop this consideration from now.
55ConclusionKorea has a long history of examination oriented mathematics education.So, it is very difficult to change this kind of culture.But, many Korean mathematics teachers and educators are trying to re-model math classes though it is a rugged and very difficult way.