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Some Characteristics in Korean National Curriculum and its Revising Process Hee-chan Lew Korea National University of Education hclew@knue.ac.kr

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Topics 7 th National Curriculum 7 th National Curriculum –Nature, Structure, Contents, Guide line for instruction and evaluation, College Entrance Examination (CSAT) Revising Process Revising Process –Revision Period, Revising Team, Influencing factors in determining mathematics curriculum Social Background of Korea Social Background of Korea Some lessons from TIMSS report Some lessons from TIMSS report

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Social Background Parents’ Concern on Education Education: The most important factor to understand Korean Society. Education: The most important factor to understand Korean Society. –Korean parents are willing to submit themselves to their children’s education. KEDI(2004): in 2000 KEDI(2004): in 2000 –Government’s expense for public education is 30 billion US$ –Parents’ expense for out-of-school programs: 37 billion US$ (10% of their total income)

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Out-of-School Programs Status of out-of-school program in society Status of out-of-school program in society –84.1% of students (Elementary 91.1%, Junior High 81.5, Senior High 70.2%) go to extracurricular programs –“ Their children must study harder than other students to enter better universities ” –“ A better university is a shortcut to a better future ” Competition-Oriented Society Competition-Oriented Society –Old tradition

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Examination Tradition In 958 AD, “ Koryeo ” Kingdom (918-1392) accepted from China the formal examination system to select government officials, which was kept even during the next “ Chosun ” Kingdom (1392-1910) for 950 years. In 958 AD, “ Koryeo ” Kingdom (918-1392) accepted from China the formal examination system to select government officials, which was kept even during the next “ Chosun ” Kingdom (1392-1910) for 950 years. –Pass to the examination was the most honorable event of the person and his family

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“ Education was our only hope ” The Poster of the Special Exhibition of Educational Materials for the 60 th Anniversary of the restoration of independence: 1945-2005 The Poster of the Special Exhibition of Educational Materials for the 60 th Anniversary of the restoration of independence: 1945-2005 “ Education was our only hope ” is a pregnant one- sentence to represent the 60 years of Korean Society “ Education was our only hope ” is a pregnant one- sentence to represent the 60 years of Korean Society

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What is learned in out-of-school program? Techniques vs. Abilities 70-90 % of students study mathematics 1- 2 hours almost every day at their out-of- school programs 70-90 % of students study mathematics 1- 2 hours almost every day at their out-of- school programs They learn technical skills and knowledge for eventually preparing for the college entrance examination rather than cultivating mathematical abilities They learn technical skills and knowledge for eventually preparing for the college entrance examination rather than cultivating mathematical abilities They learn techniques to select correct answers in various objective tests. They learn techniques to select correct answers in various objective tests.

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International Test We worry that this kind of out-of-school studies seems to be one of the main reasons of Korean students’ high achievement in TIMSS, TIMSS-R and PISA We worry that this kind of out-of-school studies seems to be one of the main reasons of Korean students’ high achievement in TIMSS, TIMSS-R and PISA Other presumed reasons: Other presumed reasons: –Korean teachers teach systematically –Korean math curriculum favors TIMSS –Korea Scholastic Ability Test is similar to PISA –Students study hard in their schools to enter better universities or for other purposes etc.

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Math Education after TIMSS There were many changes after TIMSS There were many changes after TIMSS 7 th National Curriculum issued on December 1997 7 th National Curriculum issued on December 1997 –Focusing on students’ problem solving abilities School Reform Movement in the late of 1990s School Reform Movement in the late of 1990s –Open Education –Performance Assessment –Computer use in classroom

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Three factors for change Gradual change in mathematics education since 1980 to support the economic development of 1970s and 1980s Gradual change in mathematics education since 1980 to support the economic development of 1970s and 1980s –From “ theoretical ” mathematics to “ practical ” mathematics TIMSS report TIMSS report –Reflection on the weak points of math classes Impact of foreign curricula such as of USA & Great Britain Impact of foreign curricula such as of USA & Great Britain

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TIMSS report TIMSS provided an opportunity for Korean Society to reflect on the educational environment on the whole through a multivariate analysis with teachers, institutions as well as students. TIMSS provided an opportunity for Korean Society to reflect on the educational environment on the whole through a multivariate analysis with teachers, institutions as well as students. Korean mathematics education seems to have many serious weak points, despite of students' very proud achievement. Korean mathematics education seems to have many serious weak points, despite of students' very proud achievement.

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Affective Characteristics: Lesson from TIMSS Report Korean students' affective characteristics was not friendly to mathematics compared with other countries. Korean students' affective characteristics was not friendly to mathematics compared with other countries. In the case of the 8th grade, Korea was one of the lowest countries in the confidence and interest levels. In the case of the 8th grade, Korea was one of the lowest countries in the confidence and interest levels. This result is also being repeated in the current PISA test. This result is also being repeated in the current PISA test.

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Achievement Difference: Lesson from TIMSS Report There is a significant difference in the achievement level between male and female, and city and rural area There is a significant difference in the achievement level between male and female, and city and rural area –A serious problem with respect to an equal opportunity in mathematics education. –Traditional custom guides girls not to go to the mathematical fields. –Generally rural area, compared with city area, has an educationally inferior environment.

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Teaching Style: Lesson from TIMSS Report Whole class activities under teachers' control is the first consideration in the style of organizing classes Whole class activities under teachers' control is the first consideration in the style of organizing classes –89% of students, the largest rate, thought that whole class lesson with teacher’s explanation is the most frequent style. –Only 11%, the lowest rate, of students thought that activities worked in pairs or small groups with assistance from teachers is the most frequent style.

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Technology: Lesson from TIMSS Report Korean math teachers were the most negative in using computer and calculator in their classes and problem solving process Korean math teachers were the most negative in using computer and calculator in their classes and problem solving process 93% of teachers and 96% of students never used computers and calculators in their math classes, which was the highest among TIMSS countries 93% of teachers and 96% of students never used computers and calculators in their math classes, which was the highest among TIMSS countries

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Goals for learning mathematics: Lesson from TIMSS Report Many math teachers do not consider mathematical application and reasoning ability as important goals for students. Many math teachers do not consider mathematical application and reasoning ability as important goals for students. –Korea belongs to countries whose rate was very low. –Teachers seem not to understand well the reason why problem solving should be emphasized in mathematics education

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Evaluation Method: Lesson from TIMSS Report Critics have been proposed that the objective items might give a better chance for Korean students to get higher scores than other nations’ students because Korean students were familiar with an objective test. Critics have been proposed that the objective items might give a better chance for Korean students to get higher scores than other nations’ students because Korean students were familiar with an objective test.

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The 7th curriculum Issued in Dec 31 1997 to reflect: Issued in Dec 31 1997 to reflect: –Reform movement of mathematics education throughout the world, particularly of USA –Reconsideration of learning methods and contents school mathematics has emphasized for a long time –Lessons from TIMSS report –National goals for the construction of an advanced civilized society –Individual differences in abilities, needs, and interests of students

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Nature: practical mathematics The new curriculum emphasizes practical mathematics such as The new curriculum emphasizes practical mathematics such as –problem solving –application and modeling of mathematics –reasoning It contrasts sharply with the 3rd curriculum issued in 1973 which emphasized mathematical knowledge as theoretical aspect It contrasts sharply with the 3rd curriculum issued in 1973 which emphasized mathematical knowledge as theoretical aspect

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Gradual change since 1980 The change has been done gradually since the 4 th curriculum issued in 1980: The change has been done gradually since the 4 th curriculum issued in 1980: –4 th : problem solving –5 th : problem solving –6 th : problem solving, technology –7 th : problem solving, reasoning, communication, technology, connection, modeling The influence of USA for Korean mathematics curriculum

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Old Kingdom Period Korea has a long history of emphasizing theoretical mathematics for a selective examination Korea has a long history of emphasizing theoretical mathematics for a selective examination –In 958, the "Koryeo" Kingdom (918-1392) introduced mathematics into its examination system to select middle level technical government officials. –They have to memorize many Chinese mathematical classics including “ Nine Chapters on Mathematical Art ” for 7-9 years in schools.

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1 st Curriculum 1 st curriculum issued in 1955 professed to emphasize practical problem solving in real life under the influence of the American pragmatism and Dewey's educational philosophy. 1 st curriculum issued in 1955 professed to emphasize practical problem solving in real life under the influence of the American pragmatism and Dewey's educational philosophy. However, real situation was different because most of textbook authors were pure mathematicians and the college entrance examination were not practically oriented. However, real situation was different because most of textbook authors were pure mathematicians and the college entrance examination were not practically oriented.

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2 nd & 3 rd Curriculum 2nd curriculum (1963) emphasized more formal and systematical mathematics. 2nd curriculum (1963) emphasized more formal and systematical mathematics. 3rd curriculum (1973) accepted the new mathematics movement totally, emphasizing set language, mathematical structures and logical rigorousness 3rd curriculum (1973) accepted the new mathematics movement totally, emphasizing set language, mathematical structures and logical rigorousness The theoretical mathematics reached to the highest points. The theoretical mathematics reached to the highest points.

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History of Korean Curriculum

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Instruction under 7 th curriculum The 7th curriculum emphasizes various types of instruction to improve efficiency and significance of students' mathematical learning. The 7th curriculum emphasizes various types of instruction to improve efficiency and significance of students' mathematical learning. It recommends that students should be able to experience the joy of discovery and maintain their interest in mathematics in their classrooms It recommends that students should be able to experience the joy of discovery and maintain their interest in mathematics in their classrooms

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Evaluation under 7 th curriculum Mathematical power should be evaluated by the following methods in their classrooms : Mathematical power should be evaluated by the following methods in their classrooms : -to focus on students' understanding of a problem and the problem-solving process as well as its results; -to focus on student's abilities to think and solve problems in a flexible, diverse and creative fashion;

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Schooling system & Students number Korea has 6-3-3-4 educational system Korea has 6-3-3-4 educational system –Elementary 6 years, Junior High 3 years, Senior High 3 years, College 4 years We have about 400,000 students in each grade We have about 400,000 students in each grade –Almost 100 % students graduate Senior High schools –At 11 grade, they choose one of the Liberal Arts track or Science track –The ratio of students of Liberal Arts track and Science track is 2:1

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Structure The 7 th curriculum have two parts: The 7 th curriculum have two parts: The compulsory core curriculum learned in the first 10 school years called “ people common educational period ” The compulsory core curriculum learned in the first 10 school years called “ people common educational period ” The elective curriculum learned in 11 and 12 grades by choosing some among 6 subjects such as: The elective curriculum learned in 11 and 12 grades by choosing some among 6 subjects such as: –Real-World Math, Math I, Math II, Calculus, Statistics and Probability, and Discrete Math

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Structure The compulsory core curriculum is to teach same contents to all students The compulsory core curriculum is to teach same contents to all students The elective curriculum has two kinds of selective subject: The elective curriculum has two kinds of selective subject: –General-selective: a subject to strengthen cultural literacy and connection to real world Real-World Mathematics –Deep-selective: 5 subjects related with college entrance examination Math I, Math II, Calculus, Statistics and Probability, and Discrete Math

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Structure of the 7 th Curriculum SchoolElementary Junior High Senior High Grade123456789101112 Level 1a1a1a1a 1b1b1b1b 2a2a2a2a 2b2b2b2b 3a3a3a3a 3b3b3b3b 4a4a4a4a 4b4b4b4b 5a5a5a5a 5b5b5b5b 6a6a6a6a 6b6b6b6b 7a7a7a7a 7b7b7b7b 8a8a8a8a 8b8b8b8b 9a9a9a9a 9b9b9b9b 10 a 10 b CurriName Compulsory Core CurriculumSelectiveCurriculum Subjec t NameMathematics (general- selective) Real World Math (deep selective) Math I, Math II, Calculus, Probability & Statistic, Discrete Mathematics

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Level Promotion The compulsory core curriculum has 20 levels. Students are promoted by a level- transfer test administered by schools at the end of semester. The compulsory core curriculum has 20 levels. Students are promoted by a level- transfer test administered by schools at the end of semester. –This system converts from the laissez-fair policy which guarantees automatic promotion to the controlling policy. –Students who fail the level transfer test by scoring below 60% must take the extra- course offered by schools during the vacation of the semester.

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Enrichment and Supplement Program To avoid unnecessary competition and a sense of incongruity among students and parents, skipping levels is not permitted To avoid unnecessary competition and a sense of incongruity among students and parents, skipping levels is not permitted For advanced students and low achievers, special enrichment and supplementary sections will be provided during the course at the teacher's discretion. For advanced students and low achievers, special enrichment and supplementary sections will be provided during the course at the teacher's discretion.

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Time Allotment Time allotted to Mathematics of 1-10 grades is 131 class hours in average per year. Time allotted to Mathematics of 1-10 grades is 131 class hours in average per year. –It is the largest amount of time allotment second only to Korean, of which time allotment is 188 hours in average per year. In Grades 11 & 12, the time allotment depends on the kinds of students’ track for College Entrance Examination: “ Science ” and “ Liberal art ” In Grades 11 & 12, the time allotment depends on the kinds of students’ track for College Entrance Examination: “ Science ” and “ Liberal art ”

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Time Allotment SchoolElementary Junior High Senior High Grade123456789101112 Curri Name Compulsory Core CurriculumSelectiveCurriculum Class hours* Per year** 120136136136136136136136102136 Liberal Arts 102Science272 102 Science 272 Class hours per week 3-4444444434 Liberal Arts 3Science8 3 Science 4 *1 class hour of Elementary, Junior High and Senior High is 40, 45, 50 minutes respectively ** 1 year is 34 weeks

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Contents of Grades 1-10 The Compulsory mathematics curriculum consists of the six strands: – –Number & Operation, Geometry, Measuring, Probability & Statistics, Letter & Expression, and Pattern & Function Unlike USA, Korea does not distinguish content strand and process strand. – –Only exception is “ problem solving ” but, it is in “ Letters and Expression ” strand.

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Class Hours classified by Strands Strand Class hours Ratio Number and Operation 44834.2% Geometry29022.1% Measuring15812.1% Probability and Statistics 987.5% Letter and Expression 19715.0% Pattern and Function 1199.1% Total1310100%

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Class Hours classified by Strands and Grades Strands12345678910 Number & Operation 74626346805863465944322434259713132115 Geometry1311221625183526322426193425483530292518 Measuring141124171511171220142317181386111186 Probability & Statistics 657586107961813131014107764 Letter & Expression 981712648612914102216392827274331 Pattern & Function 433221324323171511181314143324 Sum120100136100136100136100136100136100136100136100102100136100

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Number and Operation Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Natural Number 74626346705127201713181326920.5 Fraction & Decimal Fraction 1073626423132241209.2 Integer & Rational Number 161297251.9 Real & Complex Number 13132115342.6 Sum Sum7462634680586346594432243425971313211544834.2

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Geometry Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Spatial Sense 131116121182143861310675.1 Properties of Figures 6414103324281918132115241814411.0 Deductive Proof 24173029544.1 Coordinate Geometry 2518251.9 Sum Sum131122162518352632232619342548353029251829022.1

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Measuring Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Measuring with Units 64221613101072014171318131068.1 Quantity Sense and Estimation 872121756486332.5 Trigonometric Ratio 1111110.8 Linear Programming 8680.6 Sum Sum14112417151117122014231718138611118615812.1 Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136)

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Probability and Statistics Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Diagram and Graphs 6575861076486453.4 Probability1071410241.8 Basic Statistics 3213107764292.2 Sum Sum657586107961813131014107764987.5

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Letter and Expression Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Making Expression 221071410771713503.8 Equation & Inequality 75129251813132115786.0 Factorization7754120.9 Problem Solving Strategy 7610764861291410574.4 Sum Sum98171264861291410221639282727433119715.0

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Pattern and Function Class hours classified by big ideas and grades Big Ideas Elementary Junior High S. H. Total 12345678910 Pattern Finding 4332213243161.2 Ratio & Proportion 231764292.2 Elementary Function 97181314141511564.3 Trigonometric Function 1813181.4 Sum Sum4332213243231715111813141433241199.1 Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136) Class Hours per year: 1310 (1 st grade, 102; 9 th grade, 120; others, 136)

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College Entrance Examination and Mathematics Curriculum Area Examination Scope Number of items Total Time Type of problems Type A (130,000) (100,000) Math Ⅰ 40% Math Ⅱ 40% Select 1 among Calculus, Statistics and probability, Discrete math 20% 30 items 100 Minutes Choice:70%, Short Answer:30% Type B (270,000) (300,000) Math I 30 items 100 Minutes Choice:70%, Short Answer:30%

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Revising Period of Curriculum 2 nd - 4 th curriculum : 7-10 years 2 nd - 4 th curriculum : 7-10 years 5 th - 7 th curriculum: 5 years 5 th - 7 th curriculum: 5 years Curriculum 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th Revising Date 1955. 8. 1 E, H 1963. 2. 15 E, J, S 1973. 2. 14 E 1973. 8. 31 J 1974 S 1981. 12. 31 E, J, S Curriculum 5 th 6 th 7 th The newly developed Revising Date 1987. 3. 31 J 1987. 6. 30 E 1988. 3. 31 S 1992. 6. 30 J 1992. 9. 30 E 1992. 10. 30 S 1997. 12. 30 E, J, S 2005. 12. 30 Grade 1-10 2006. 12. 30 Grade 11-12

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Revising Team MOE names one person in a university or a research institute as the chief of the revising team and requests the chief to construct the revising team MOE names one person in a university or a research institute as the chief of the revising team and requests the chief to construct the revising team –7 th : one professor of SKK University –The newly developed: The director of Korea Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation (KICE) The chief has an important role in the selection process of other 6-7 members who are all professors or researchers The chief has an important role in the selection process of other 6-7 members who are all professors or researchers

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Activities of the Revising Team The team holds a conference to reflect various opinions from various individual or groups like academic circles or society and math teacher’s union or groups The team holds a conference to reflect various opinions from various individual or groups like academic circles or society and math teacher’s union or groups The team makes questionnaire and interview with teachers, researchers, parents, students, administrators to appreciate national or societal goals and to select contents and their sequence. The team makes questionnaire and interview with teachers, researchers, parents, students, administrators to appreciate national or societal goals and to select contents and their sequence.

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Consulting Team The team has the consulting team with teachers and professors to consult various problems in the process of revising the curriculum. The team has the consulting team with teachers and professors to consult various problems in the process of revising the curriculum. Several meetings are held to respond to questions and some issues raised by the revising team Several meetings are held to respond to questions and some issues raised by the revising team

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Meetings to reflect various opinions The mathematics education society invites the chief of the team to introduce the draft of the curriculum at the annual meeting of the Society to provide some feedback to the team. The mathematics education society invites the chief of the team to introduce the draft of the curriculum at the annual meeting of the Society to provide some feedback to the team. The team holds seminars on the draft of the curriculum 5-6 times at the focal universities in the local areas to reflect some ideas of the local communities of mathematics education. The team holds seminars on the draft of the curriculum 5-6 times at the focal universities in the local areas to reflect some ideas of the local communities of mathematics education.

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Reviewing Committee MOE organizes the reviewing committee with professors and teachers to review the final draft corrected by the revising team based on the various opinions collected from various meetings. MOE organizes the reviewing committee with professors and teachers to review the final draft corrected by the revising team based on the various opinions collected from various meetings. Reviewing Committee invites the revising team in the reviewing process to discuss or to debate some key issues. Reviewing Committee invites the revising team in the reviewing process to discuss or to debate some key issues.

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Public Hearing After finishing the whole reviewing process, the revising team holds a public hearing to report the final draft to the public. After finishing the whole reviewing process, the revising team holds a public hearing to report the final draft to the public.

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Important Factors in Revising Curriculum Analysis of the previous curriculum executed in classrooms. Analysis of the previous curriculum executed in classrooms. Students’ understanding level Students’ understanding level Logical sequence of contents Logical sequence of contents Foreign countries’ curriculum Foreign countries’ curriculum National and social needs National and social needs Request of academic circle Request of academic circle Relevance of amount of learning Relevance of amount of learning

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Conclusion This has summarized the change of mathematics education and the process for the change made in Korea after TIMSS. This has summarized the change of mathematics education and the process for the change made in Korea after TIMSS. –The main focus is on the practical mathematics. The national strategy to construct a highly developed country in the near future. The national strategy to construct a highly developed country in the near future. –Practical Mathematics is tool for propelling the development of science and for solving quantitative and qualitative problems faced on people in their lives.

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Conclusion More students have to leave school absorbing mathematics and having confidence. More students have to leave school absorbing mathematics and having confidence. –Until now, school mathematics is considered as only a subject for college entrance examination. –Many students think continual learning of mathematics is meaningless and elementary mathematics is enough. –We have to stop this consideration from now.

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Conclusion Korea has a long history of examination oriented mathematics education. Korea has a long history of examination oriented mathematics education. So, it is very difficult to change this kind of culture. So, it is very difficult to change this kind of culture. But, many Korean mathematics teachers and educators are trying to re-model math classes though it is a rugged and very difficult way. But, many Korean mathematics teachers and educators are trying to re-model math classes though it is a rugged and very difficult way.

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