Introduction to Public Speaking 6 #1 Fear Why Public Speaking is good for you Perceived as a leader Increased exposure in organization Gain trust Personal growth
Overcoming fear 7 Know your topic Practice Visualize success Focus on material Silence is your friend Get support
Public speaking Body Language Be careful about what your expression or body language says about you SMILE-it is welcoming and inviting (don’t fake it) Pace Allow for pauses, don’t go too fast, a pause is okay and also relaxes you Speaking too fast can lose the audience Word-Choice Use words that are appropriate and be careful about ad-libbing 8
How you communicate is as important as what you communicate 9
Public speaking Know your material If you have PowerPoint slides…know the slides, don’t read them word for word. Use the notes feature. Rule of thumb: Face your audience at least 75% of the time 11
Language Vocal dynamics Change your voice inflections (don’t have the “Bueller” effect) Create interest in the way you talk to the audience Mind non-verbals Expression Body language Crutch words 12
Know your material Review material If using PowerPoint, don’t just read the slides. Use the notes feature. Add stories, anecdotes, examples, reminders, lists of facts, etc. Working as a team? Determine who covers what. Tips for Effective PresentationsEffective Presentations 13
Activity 14 60 minutes Break into teams of two Present using material provided to you Remember Word choice Inflection Expressions Body language
Working with equipment Check out the room (don’t let presentation be the first time you have been in the room) What is the security? How do you gain access to the room? Know the equipment you will be using and if you need IT to assist in set-up (arrange prior) Have the IT support contact phone number with you. If you are training on a computer application, you will have to “re-set” the room, computers, and application for the next session 15
Additional presentation information 16 1. Navigate to http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCS_ 96.htm and complete the “how good are your presentation skills” assessment. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCS_ 96.htm 2. Once the application calculates your score it will provide suggestions for improving your effectiveness as a presenter.
Staying on time 28 Auto-count break slides Time activities Larger audience = more time for activities Practice activities Cut or add time in activities an easy way to stay on time Cut Q&A session Have a clock in the room you can glance at, or use a watch on your podium Have material you are prepared to cut and provide as handouts
Classroom facilitation Facilitate is defined as “to make easy” Put the group at ease Ice breakers Introductions Learn names Be open and natural Engage participation Bribes Avoid closers Have props 34
Go bag 35 20 minutes Break into small groups Brainstorm on the perfect facilitator go bag Put one idea per post-it note and place post-its on wall when prompted If someone else has a post-it like yours put yours beside it in a row
Message content 36 Words are not the entire content Words = 7% Tone of voice = 38% Body language = 55%
Reading an audience 37 1. Check for understanding 2. Are they bored? 3. Are they frustrated, impatient, or ready to go? 4. Are they not buying in? Are they defensive or angry? 5. Do they doubt your claims or think you are lying? 6. Do they get it?
Clarifying questions For thisTry something like 41 1. Confused or concerned body language 2. Blank stares and sleepy people 1. It seems I may not have been clear. Is there specific information I can go over? 2. Is everyone following me? Should I speed up or slow down?
Clarifying questions For thisTry something like 42 3. Negative body language 4. Anytime you need to bring people back to the present 3. I’m sensing you may have some questions. Would anyone like to comment? 4. Are there any questions at this point?
Working with an audience What are some non-verbal cues you can use to address the following behaviors? 43 Sleeping Surfing the internet Over eager Late arrival Walking in and out The tactic you use is dependent upon 1.Individual engaging in the behavior 2.Classroom “vibe” 3.Room set up
Engaging everyone ActivityTake ten minutes 44 1. Break into small groups 2. Brainstorm strategies for dealing with behaviors in the opposite column 3. Every technique we’ve discussed, you have used, or that you’ve seen fair game Not participating Crying Defensive posture Playing with phone
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 45 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies InterrupterOne member silences another; interrupting, inappropriate use of humor 1.Give them an assignment. Ask them to write down their ideas and wait until it is time to discuss. 2.Ask the person who has been shut down if they have finished. Indicate interest in what they were saying. 3.Move away physically. 4.Say “Hold on, Bob, Jane wasn’t finished yet.”
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 46 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies DominatorOut-talks others; pushes through their own agenda. Can be kind of a loudmouth. 1.It is more important to get others to speak up than to quiet the dominator. 2.Say “Thank you. You have given us many of your thoughts. I’d like to hear what some others think.” 3.Use body language. Move closer to them while they talk. Maintain eye contact until you are in front of them, then shift focus and call on someone else. 4.Talk to them at break. 5.Ask them to be the recorder for the session or give them a task to do.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 47 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies LabelerPerson who says “you are so negative” or “oversensitive” or “you’re such a perfectionist”. Group is diverted from task while the other person denies or defends. 1.Make a rule at the beginning – no personal attacks. Nay-sayerPerson who says “This will never work” or “The problem with that idea is…” Negative about ideas before they are considered. Negative effect on the group, especially on those unsure of themselves or their ideas. 1.Ask them “how do the minuses outweigh the positives?” or “What’s the worst that could happen?” Get the group to agree to not evaluate ideas for a set period of time.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 48 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies Late Comer Makes a big commotion. Stops the session and expects to be caught up. 1.Put the seating focus of the meeting away from the door. If they are important, take a moment to review what has been covered and use the “group memory” to get everyone to participate. Early Leaver Drains energy1.Your session should always have a timeframe and be scheduled early enough people can allow enough time in their schedule. At the beginning, cover the timeframe and check to see if everyone is staying until the end.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 49 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies Late Comer Makes a big commotion. Stops the session and expects to be caught up 1.Put the seating focus of the meeting away from the door. If they are important, take a moment to review what has been covered and use the “group memory” to get everyone to participate. Early Leaver Drains energy1.Your session should always have a timeframe and be scheduled early enough people can allow enough time in their schedule. At the beginning cover the timeframe and check to see if everyone is staying until the end.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 50 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies Filibusters/ Ramblers Asks to comment briefly then talks for 15 minutes. Answers questions before others have had a chance to comment. Says nothing worthwhile or important while speaking. 1.Ask specific questions. 2.When they take a breath, break in and thank them. Clarify their point for them and move on. 3.Move in on them physically. 4.Paraphrase their ideas. 5.Break eye contact with them. 6.Ask them to be the recorder. 7.Use your agenda and point out they are making the session run over.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 51 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies WhispererChats with the person next to them. Carries on side conversations. Makes comments under their breath. Passes notes. 1.Use pre-arranged seating to break them away from their friends. Change seats during the break and couch it as an “activity.” 2.Move in physically. 3.Compliment them, point out their views are important and ask them to share with the whole group. Say “I didn’t hear your comment, please repeat it for the group.” 4.Ask to discuss an issue with them in private. 5.Ask them to leave. 6.State that you need to keep a single focus, and that the group won’t accomplish what they need to in the time allotted if people go off in different directions.
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 52 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies AttackerLaunches personal attacks on others. Launches personal attacks on you or your facilitation style. Remind them that everyone is here to learn and to not discuss personal problems. Urge members to work out personal problems elsewhere. Use group memory to refocus on ideas, not individuals. Use boomerang technique. Turn issues back on them for positive suggestions, e.g. “you think I’m not giving you enough opportunity to state your position. What do you think we should do to correct the imbalance?”
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 53 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies NibblerTalks a lot. Never bites into the heart of the matter. Diminishes an idea by nibbling away at the edges. Keep to the agenda. Head- shaker Non-verbal communications are disruptive. 1.Ignore them. 2.Draw them to participate. Say “I see you shaking your head. It looks like you disagree with what is being said. Please share your reactions with the group.”
Dealing with disruptive behaviors 54 BehaviorCuesCoping strategies DropoutSits at back. Says nothing, reads, doodles, or plays with their phone. 1.Ask “what do you think about that” or “What is your idea?” 2.Establish eye contact 3.Ensure that activities require participation from everyone in the group. 4.During a break, ask why they are not participating.
Disruptive behaviors ActivityTake sixty minutes 66 1. Each participant will be asked to lead a few slides in a presentation. 2. Non presenters will demonstrate disruptive behavior and the facilitator(s) will have to address it. Leaders of the session will point to classroom participants and hold up a sign behind person leading session. Selected individual(s) will role play that behavior until leader addresses it.
Ways to undermine your effectiveness 67 1. Frequent changes to time, date, location 2. Not having an agenda 3. Not having visual aids 4. Allowing sideline conversations 5. Allowing individuals to dominate discussion 6. Not going with the flow. 7. Failure to use facilitators to their full potential 8. Lecture only style
Characteristics of effective sessions 68 1. Room set up is appropriate to the material and audience 2. Props and equipment are there and ready to go 3. You have a plan for questions 4. Time allotted is appropriate 5. Practice, practice, practice 6. Someone checks for understanding during the session 7. Everyone participates