2 Project Success How? Engagement Ownership clearly defined Clear division of responsibilitiesRealism!! (purpose)Connection Activities – ObjectivesCapacity to handle risksFlexibilityBeneficiaries engaged in project planning…..LFA is a useful tool to reach success!
3 LFA Characteristics Finding the “roots” before setting the objectives Objectives & beneficiary orientedParticipatory/Ownership!Consensus orientedFocus on logical linksSystematic common sense!!!
4 Why LFA? RELEVANCE, FEASIBILITY & SUSTAINABILITY Situation and weaknesses are analysed correct solutions (activities)Mistakes are avoidedFacilitates implementationIdentifies indicators of the projects achievements
5 The nine steps of an LFA analysis 1 Analysis of project´s Context2 Analysis of Stakeholders3 Problem Analysis/Situation Analysis4 Objectives Analysis5 Plan of Activities6 Plan of Resources/Inputs7 Indicators/measurements8 Risk Analysis9 Analysis of Assumptions
6 Step 1: Projects Context Changes/projects are part of a larger context/a situationWhich environment will the project be situated in?Which factors are of importance for achieving the objectives?Analysis of Context made through a study and/or through making a “SWOT” analysis
7 SWOT analysis* Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats A tool for auditing /identifying e.g. an environment, agency,company etc:StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesThreats*Not LFA , SWOT is a separate method, which may be used for the analysis of the project’s Context
8 Step 2: Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders - those who are influenced by and exert an influence on the project entityMapping of stakeholders and their respective rolesWho will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the projectWhich stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the project
9 Step 2 Stakeholder Analysis Four main groups of stakeholders:BeneficiariesImplementersFinancing agentsDecision makers
10 PROBLEMANALYSIS CRUCIAL! As with weeds, the roots must be tackled, if the weeds are to disappear
11 Step 3: Problem Analysis Finding “the roots of the evil”Which is the problem to be solved?Who owns the problem?One focal problem, focus!Find the causes and effects to the focal problemThe causes of the problem shall be “tackled” through activities within the framework of the project in order to solve the problem in a sustainable way
12 Why a Problem Tree? Problem Tree Effects Focal problem Causes Objective TreeOverall objectivesProject PurposeResults
13 Step 4: Objectives Analysis Three levels 1 Overall Objectives/Development Objectives: Often Governmental level, long term perspective, i e social welfare, economic growth.The positive situation of the effects of the focal problem identified. Time frame: Long term, 5-10 years (e.g Living conditions of local people improved or Investments into agricultural export crops increased )2 Project objectives or Project Purpose: Which are the objectives that the intervention/project should be able to achieve. The positive solution to the focal problem, the solved focal problem. The reason why the project.is implemented. Time frame:Medium term 0-3 years (e.g River water quality improved or Road network meets traffic demands) .3 Outputs/Targets/Results: The outputs/results describe the services to be produced by the project. What services do the beneficiary get access to? Connected to the causes of the focal problem identified. Achieved through the activities. Time frame: Short term/directly after the project activities have been implemented (e.g. Direct discharge of wastewater decreased or road network expanded) .
14 LFA Overall Objectives Step 4 Long-term social and or economic benefits, to which the project will contributeNot achieved by the project on its own, several projects contributeStates the positive state for the beneficiaries and for the societyExamples;- Improved social well fare- Economic growth in region X - Food supply stabilised
15 LFA Project Purpose, Step 4 The main reason for having a project ! WHY a projectConnection to the “focal” problemSets out the benefits, which the beneficiaries derive from the projectImplementing agencies should enable for the beneficiaries to achieve the benefits by delivering the required services/resultsExamples;- Improved labour productivity for crop X achieved..,- Health hazards (for certain diseases) of the population in area X reduced to a certain standard - River water quality improved etc...
16 LFA Results Step 4 Connected to the causes of the focal problem Sets out the services which the beneficiaries will receive from the implementing agency through the projectExamples;- Farmers able to apply more efficient maize production techniques,- Adequate mother and child care provided to the people in region X,- Improved transport between A and B
17 Specific Measurable Accurate or Approved Realistic Time bound SMART project purposeSpecificMeasurableAccurate or ApprovedRealisticTime bound
18 Step 5: Activities Tackle the causes of the focal problem What will be done under the project to deliver the services/results required by the beneficiariesUsually expressed as an actionMeans to achieve the objectives, not the objectivesExamples;- Rehabilitate health posts, - Train rural health staff, - Re-construct road from A to B
19 Step 6: Inputs/Resources Experts and personnel (local and foreign, counter part, project group)Financing (loans, grants, funds) cost sharing? Future long term financing?EquipmentPremises
20 Step 7: Indicators Measure achievements A baseline study might be needed to be able to measure the final results?The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vagueIndicators should answer the questions:For whom? What? When? Where? How much? What quality?
21 Step 8: Risk AnalysisAnalysis of factors which may influence the implementation of the project and hence the achievement of objectivesInternal and External risksAlternative strategies may be needed?Risk management !!!
22 Step 9: Analysis of Assumptions The project in the perspective of society/ institutional situation in a country (laws, political commitments, financing)Assumptions describe situations and conditions, which are necessary for project success, but which are largely beyond the control of the project managementAssumptions on each level of objective (results, project purpose and overall objectives)Examples: Delivery in time of equipment, at least five of the trained personnel stays within the company for 5 more years, prevailed stable political situation
23 Why different steps in LFA? Relevance; Step 1 – Context, Stakeholder-, Problem- and Objectives analysis. Logical links between problems and solutions, Relevant to support? (in accordance with strategies and problems in the country/sector?)Feasible; Step 5 – Plan of Activities, Resources/inputs and Indicators. Are the resources sufficient to achieve the objectives? (Resources: Personnel, time, funding, equipment)Sustainable; Step 8 – Risk analysis and Assumptions. If the project is sustainable, will the effects of the project remain without continuos external assistance outside?
26 LFA summaryRelevant, Feasible and Sustainable projects/programs - success!Participation & ownership!Joint approach to projectMake problem analysis with accuracy /time to correctly analyze causes & effectsConnection problems and objectivesAdd analysis such as cost effectiveness and gender, study on environmental aspects and make a clear division of responsibilitiesLFA during all phases of the project
27 How the LFA method works depends on its users LFA is no better and no worse than its users
28 Why GOPP (LFA) workshop ? Relevant, feasible and sustainable projects.To overcome major errors in planning structure!All key stakeholders participation & efficiency, correct situation analysis correct solutions (activities)Shared understanding of the situation and of different needs and interest - transparency !Ownership and responsibility
29 LFA STEPS in a workshop STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS PROBLEM ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES ANALYSISPLAN of ACTIVITIES (overall “brainstorming” ideas)RISK ANALYSISASSUMPTIONS LOG FRAME/MATRIXLFA/GOPP WORKSHOP answers WHAT TO DO, not HOW. The detailed planning is made later by the project group