2WHAT IS A PROJECT?“A project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period for an identified group of stakeholders”Clearly identified stakeholders (primary target group and final beneficiaries)Specific objectives (overall/specific)Activities (action plan)Resources and input (means; budget)Clearly defined coordination (management and financialset-up)A monitoring an evaluation system (support performance)
3WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT EU PROJECT? A well formulated project has an appropriate balance between EC priorities and partner prioritiesEU projects should form part of and be consistent with national/regional development policies and EU priorities and strategiesFunding should fit the project’s objectives and activities(Local projects= local funding, national projects= national funding, European projects = EU funding)
5PROGRAMMING PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Evaluation /Audit CYCLE FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATIONAnalyse situation at national and sectoral level. Identify problems, constraints and opportunities.Identify main objectives and sectoral priorities for development cooperationProvide a relevant and feasible programming framework within which projects can be identified and prepared.Formulate/evaluate strategies taking account of past experiencePROJECTCYCLE
6PROGRAMMING PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Evaluation /Audit CYCLE FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATIONPROJECTCYCLEIdentify ideas for the project and other development actionsConsult intended beneficiaries of each action, analyse problem they face and options to address these problemsMake decision on the relevance of each project idea and on which ideas should be further studied during formulation
7PROGRAMMING PROJECT IDENTIFICATION/ Evaluation /Audit CYCLE FORMULATIONIDENTIFICATION/IMPLEMENTATIONPROJECTCYCLEDevelop relevant project ideasinto operational project plansAssess feasibility andsustainabilityMake decision whether to drawup a formal project proposal andseek funding for it.
8PROGRAMMING PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Evaluation /Audit CYCLE FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATIONPROJECTCYCLEProject is mobilised and executedProject Management assess actual progressagainst planned progress to determine whetherthe project is on track towards achieving itsobjectives.If necessary the project is re-oriented to bring itback on track, or to modify some of its objectives in the light of significant changes that may have occurred since its formulation.
9PROGRAMMING PROJECT IDENTIFICATION Evaluation /Audit CYCLE FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATIONPROJECTCYCLEFunding agency and partners assess theproject to identify what as been achieved, andto identify lessons that have been learned.Evaluation findings are used to improve thedesign of future projects or programmesIt is common practice also to conduct a mid-term evaluation during implementation, toidentify lessons that can be applied during theremaining life of the project.Project funds are audited.
10LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH (LFA) CHARACTERISTICS Finding the “roots” before setting the objectivesObjectives and beneficiary orientedParticipatory/OwnershipConsensus orientedFocus on logical links
11WHY LFA?Ensures the Relevance, Feasibility and Sustainability of a projectFacilitates a dialogue/Ownership manifestedEnsures that fundamental questions are asked and weaknesses are analysedDefines the key elements and the settings of a projectIdentifies measurements/indicators of the project’s achievements
12THE 9 STEPS of an LFA ANALYSES 1- Analysis of project´s Context2- Analysis of Stakeholders3- Problem Analysis/Situation Analysis4- Objectives Analysis5- Plan of Activities6- Plan of Resources/Inputs7- Indicators/measurements8- Risk Analysis9- Analysis of Assumptions
13THE LFA PROCESS STEP 1: PROJECTS CONTEXT Changes/projects are part of a larger context/a situationWhich environment will the project be situated in?Which factors are of importance for achieving the objectives?Analysis of Context made through a study and/or through making a “SWOT” analysis- Strengths- Weaknesses- Opportunities- Threats
14STEP 2: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholders - those influenced by and exert an influence on the project entityMapping of stakeholders and their respective rolesWho will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the projectWhich stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the projectFour main groups of stakeholders♦ Beneficiaries♦ Implementers♦ Financing agents♦ Decision makers
15STEP 3: PROBLEM ANALYSIS Finding “the roots of the evil”Which is the problem to be solved?Who owns the problem?One focal problem, focus!Find the causes and effects to the focal problemThe causes of the problem shall be “tackled” through activities within the framework of the project in order to solve the problem in a sustainable way
16Problem Tree Objective Tree Effects Overall objectives Focal problem Project PurposeCauses Results
17STEP 4: OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS THREE LEVELS1- Overall Objectives/Development Objectives; Often Governmental level, long term perspective, i e social welfare, economic growth...Time frame: 5 – 10 years2- Project objectives or Project Purpose; which are the objectives that the intervention/project should be able to achieve, solve the focal problem, time frame, medium term (i.e. frequency of trade unionists arrested/sacked in x-region/country reduced by x%) Time frame:0 – 3 years.3- Outputs/Targets/Results;the output describe the services to be produced by the project, what services to the beneficiary get access to? Short term/directly after the project activities. Time frame: now
18LFA OVERALL OBJECTIVES (Step 4/1) Long-term social and or economic benefits, to which the project will contributeNot achieved by the project on its own, several projects contributeStates the positive state for beneficiaries and for the societyExamples;- Economic growth in region/country X increased,- Health care system improved- Increased income of workers and their families
19LFA PROJECT PURPOSE (Step 4/2) The main reason for having a project ! WHY a projectConnection to the “focal” problemSets out the benefits, which the beneficiaries derive from the projectImplementing agencies should enable for the beneficiaries to achieve the benefits by delivering the required services/results
20LFA RESULTS (Step 4/3) Connected to the causes of the focal problem Sets out the services which the beneficiaries will receive from the implementing agency through the projectSMART PROJECT PURPOSESpecificMeasurableAccurate or ApprovedRealisticTime bound
21STEP 5: ACTIVITIES Tackle the causes of the focal problem What will be done under the project to deliver the services/results required by the beneficiariesUsually expressed as an actionMeans to achieve the objectives, not the objectives
22STEP 6: INPUTS/RESOURCES Experts and personnel (local and foreign)/Counter part, project groupFinancing (loans, grants, funds) cost sharing? Future long term financing?EquipmentPremises
23The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vague STEP 7: INDICATORSMEASURE ACHIEVEMENTSA baseline study might be needed to be able to measure the final results?The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vagueIndicators should answer the questions:For whom? What? When? Where? How much? What quality?
24STEP 8: RISK ANALYSISAnalysis of factors which may influence the implementation of the project and hence the achievement of objectivesInternal and External risksAlternative strategies may be needed?Risk management
25STEP 9: ANALYSIS OF ASSUMPTIONS The project in the perspective of society/ institutional situation in a country (laws, political commitments, financing)Assumptions describe situations and conditions, which are necessary for project success, but which are largely beyond the control of the project managementAssumptions on each level of objectiveEx. Prevailed stable political situation
26WHY DIFFERENT STEPS IN LFA? Relevance; Step 1 – 4Context, Stakeholder-, Problem- and Objectives analysis. Logical links between problems and solutions, Relevant to support? (in accordance with strategies and problems in the country/sector?)Feasible; Step 5 – 7Plan of Activities, Resources/inputs and Indicators. Are the resources sufficient to achieve the objectives? (Resources: Personnel, time, funding, equipment)Sustainable; Step 8 – 9Risk analysis and Assumptions. If the project is sustainable, will the effects of the project remain without continuous external assistance outside?
27LFA MATRIX/LOG FRAME Overall Objectives Indicators Sources of VerificationsAssumptionsProject PurposeIndicatorsSources of VerificationsAssumptionsResultsIndicatorsSources of VerificationsAssumptionsActivitiesResources
28The Intervention Logic then the project will contribute towards the OVERALL OBJECTIVEif the Project Purpose is achievedthen the Project Purpose will be achievedif Results are producedif Activities can be undertakenthen Results will be producedIf Means are providedthen Activities can be undertaken
29MONITORING AND EVALUATION Based on the logical frameworkStrengthens accountability and transparencyProvides information for effective managementHelps determine what works well and what requires improvementBuilds knowledge
30PURPOSE OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION It is the continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the:Project implementationProject progressProject impact and effectsProject environment
31MONITORINGContinuous function that aims to provide early indications of progress or lack thereof in the achievement of resultsAssumes the validity of the existing planTakes place at the project levelIs the responsibility of the project managementIs based on the indicators defined in the logical framework
33EVALUATIONTime-bound exercise to assess the relevance, performance and success of on-going or completed projectsQuestions the validity of existing planningIs related to the impact of the projectOpens the mind for strategic adjustments
35CLASSIC MISTAKES TO AVOID Promise too much impact, outcome and outputBudget doesn’t link to activitiesLack of resources for administrationDoesn’t handle internal, organisational consequencesToo big (or too small) partnershipsLack of time (bad log frame approach)
36CONCLUSION HOW THE LFA METHOD WORKS DEPENDS WERY MUCH ON ITS USERS THE LFA IS NO BETTER AND NO WORSE THAN ITSUSERS