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Www.ituc-csi.org PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT (PCM) Mamadou DIALLO.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.ituc-csi.org PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT (PCM) Mamadou DIALLO."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT (PCM) Mamadou DIALLO

2 WHAT IS A PROJECT? “A project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period for an identified group of stakeholders”  Clearly identified stakeholders (primary target group and final beneficiaries)  Specific objectives (overall/specific)  Activities (action plan)  Resources and input (means; budget)  Clearly defined coordination (management and financial set-up)  A monitoring an evaluation system (support performance)

3 WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT EU PROJECT?  A well formulated project has an appropriate balance between EC priorities and partner priorities  EU projects should form part of and be consistent with national/regional development policies and EU priorities and strategies  Funding should fit the project’s objectives and activities (Local projects= local funding, national projects= national funding, European projects = EU funding)

4 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION

5 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION Analyse situation at national and sectoral level. Identify problems, constraints and opportunities. Identify main objectives and sectoral priorities for development cooperation Provide a relevant and feasible programming framework within which projects can be identified and prepared. Formulate/evaluate strategies taking account of past experience Analyse situation at national and sectoral level. Identify problems, constraints and opportunities. Identify main objectives and sectoral priorities for development cooperation Provide a relevant and feasible programming framework within which projects can be identified and prepared. Formulate/evaluate strategies taking account of past experience

6 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION Identify ideas for the project and other development actions Consult intended beneficiaries of each action, analyse problem they face and options to address these problems Make decision on the relevance of each project idea and on which ideas should be further studied during formulation Identify ideas for the project and other development actions Consult intended beneficiaries of each action, analyse problem they face and options to address these problems Make decision on the relevance of each project idea and on which ideas should be further studied during formulation

7 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION/ FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATION Develop relevant project ideas into operational project plans Assess feasibility and sustainability Make decision whether to draw up a formal project proposal and seek funding for it. Develop relevant project ideas into operational project plans Assess feasibility and sustainability Make decision whether to draw up a formal project proposal and seek funding for it.

8 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION Project is mobilised and executed Project Management assess actual progress against planned progress to determine whether the project is on track towards achieving its objectives. If necessary the project is re-oriented to bring it back on track, or to modify some of its objectives in the light of significant changes that may have occurred since its formulation. Project is mobilised and executed Project Management assess actual progress against planned progress to determine whether the project is on track towards achieving its objectives. If necessary the project is re-oriented to bring it back on track, or to modify some of its objectives in the light of significant changes that may have occurred since its formulation.

9 PROJECTCYCLEPROJECTCYCLE PROGRAMMING Evaluation /Audit FORMULATION IDENTIFICATION IMPLEMENTATION Funding agency and partners assess the project to identify what as been achieved, and to identify lessons that have been learned. Evaluation findings are used to improve the design of future projects or programmes It is common practice also to conduct a mid- term evaluation during implementation, to identify lessons that can be applied during the remaining life of the project. Project funds are audited. Funding agency and partners assess the project to identify what as been achieved, and to identify lessons that have been learned. Evaluation findings are used to improve the design of future projects or programmes It is common practice also to conduct a mid- term evaluation during implementation, to identify lessons that can be applied during the remaining life of the project. Project funds are audited.

10 LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH (LFA) CHARACTERISTICS  Finding the “roots” before setting the objectives  Objectives and beneficiary oriented  Participatory/Ownership  Consensus oriented  Focus on logical links

11 WHY LFA?  Ensures the Relevance, Feasibility and Sustainability of a project  Facilitates a dialogue/Ownership manifested  Ensures that fundamental questions are asked and weaknesses are analysed  Defines the key elements and the settings of a project  Identifies measurements/indicators of the project’s achievements

12 THE 9 STEPS of an LFA ANALYSES  1- Analysis of project´s Context  2- Analysis of Stakeholders  3- Problem Analysis/Situation Analysis  4- Objectives Analysis  5- Plan of Activities  6- Plan of Resources/Inputs  7- Indicators/measurements  8- Risk Analysis  9- Analysis of Assumptions

13 THE LFA PROCESS STEP 1: PROJECTS CONTEXT  Changes/projects are part of a larger context/a situation  Which environment will the project be situated in?  Which factors are of importance for achieving the objectives?  Analysis of Context made through a study and/or through making a “SWOT” analysis - Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats

14 STEP 2: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS  Stakeholders - those influenced by and exert an influence on the project entity  Mapping of stakeholders and their respective roles  Who will be influenced, positively or negatively, by the project  Which stakeholders should be involved in planning and/or implementing the project  Four main groups of stakeholders ♦ Beneficiaries ♦ Implementers ♦ Financing agents ♦ Decision makers

15 STEP 3: PROBLEM ANALYSIS  Finding “the roots of the evil”  Which is the problem to be solved?  Who owns the problem?  One focal problem, focus!  Find the causes and effects to the focal problem  The causes of the problem shall be “tackled” through activities within the framework of the project in order to solve the problem in a sustainable way

16 PROBLEM TREE Problem Tree Objective Tree Effects Overall objectives Focal problem Project Purpose Causes Results

17 STEP 4: OBJECTIVES ANALYSIS THREE LEVELS  1- Overall Objectives/Development Objectives; Often Governmental level, long term perspective, i e social welfare, economic growth... Time frame: 5 – 10 years  2- Project objectives or Project Purpose; which are the objectives that the intervention/project should be able to achieve, solve the focal problem, time frame, medium term (i.e. frequency of trade unionists arrested/sacked in x- region/country reduced by x%) Time frame:0 – 3 years.  3- Outputs/Targets/Results; the output describe the services to be produced by the project, what services to the beneficiary get access to? Short term/directly after the project activities. Time frame: now

18 LFA OVERALL OBJECTIVES (Step 4/1)  Long-term social and or economic benefits, to which the project will contribute  Not achieved by the project on its own, several projects contribute  States the positive state for beneficiaries and for the society Examples; - Economic growth in region/country X increased, - Health care system improved - Increased income of workers and their families

19 LFA PROJECT PURPOSE (Step 4/2)  The main reason for having a project ! WHY a project  Connection to the “focal” problem  Sets out the benefits, which the beneficiaries derive from the project Implementing agencies should enable for the beneficiaries to achieve the benefits by delivering the required services/results

20 LFA RESULTS (Step 4/3)  Connected to the causes of the focal problem  Sets out the services which the beneficiaries will receive from the implementing agency through the project SMART PROJECT PURPOSE Specific Measurable Accurate or Approved Realistic Time bound

21 STEP 5: ACTIVITIES  Tackle the causes of the focal problem  What will be done under the project to deliver the services/results required by the beneficiaries  Usually expressed as an action  Means to achieve the objectives, not the objectives

22 STEP 6: INPUTS/RESOURCES  Experts and personnel (local and foreign)/Counter part, project group  Financing (loans, grants, funds) cost sharing? Future long term financing?  Equipment  Premises

23 STEP 7: INDICATORS MEASURE ACHIEVEMENTS  A baseline study might be needed to be able to measure the final results?  The process of setting up indicators shows if the objectives are vague  Indicators should answer the questions: For whom? What? When? Where? How much? What quality?

24 STEP 8: RISK ANALYSIS  Analysis of factors which may influence the implementation of the project and hence the achievement of objectives  Internal and External risks  Alternative strategies may be needed?  Risk management

25 STEP 9: ANALYSIS OF ASSUMPTIONS  The project in the perspective of society/ institutional situation in a country (laws, political commitments, financing)  Assumptions describe situations and conditions, which are necessary for project success, but which are largely beyond the control of the project management  Assumptions on each level of objective Ex. Prevailed stable political situation

26 WHY DIFFERENT STEPS IN LFA?  Relevance; Step 1 – 4 Context, Stakeholder-, Problem- and Objectives analysis. Logical links between problems and solutions, Relevant to support? (in accordance with strategies and problems in the country/sector?)  Feasible; Step 5 – 7 Plan of Activities, Resources/inputs and Indicators. Are the resources sufficient to achieve the objectives? (Resources: Personnel, time, funding, equipment)  Sustainable; Step 8 – 9 Risk analysis and Assumptions. If the project is sustainable, will the effects of the project remain without continuous external assistance outside?

27 LFA MATRIX/LOG FRAME Overall Objectives Indicators Sources of Verifications Assumptions Project Purpose Results Activities Indicators Sources of Verifications Assumptions Indicators Sources of Verifications Assumptions Resources

28 If Means are provided then Activities can be undertaken if Activities can be undertaken then Results will be produced if Results are produced then the Project Purpose will be achieved then the project will contribute towards the OVERALL OBJECTIVE if the Project Purpose is achieved The Intervention Logic

29 MONITORING AND EVALUATION  Based on the logical framework  Strengthens accountability and transparency  Provides information for effective management  Helps determine what works well and what requires improvement  Builds knowledge

30 PURPOSE OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION It is the continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the:  Project implementation  Project progress  Project impact and effects  Project environment

31 MONITORING  Continuous function that aims to provide early indications of progress or lack thereof in the achievement of results  Assumes the validity of the existing plan  Takes place at the project level  Is the responsibility of the project management  Is based on the indicators defined in the logical framework

32 MONITORING RESPONSIBILTY PROJECT MANAGEMENT  Activities  Output indicators  Early outcome indicators PROJECT TARGET GROUP  Outcome indicators  Impact indicators

33 EVALUATION  Time-bound exercise to assess the relevance, performance and success of on-going or completed projects  Questions the validity of existing planning  Is related to the impact of the project  Opens the mind for strategic adjustments

34 EVALUATION QUALITY CRITERIA  Relevance (overall)  Efficiency (activities, outputs)  Effectiveness (outputs, outcome)  Impact (outcome, impact)  Sustainability (outcome, impact)

35 CLASSIC MISTAKES TO AVOID  Promise too much impact, outcome and output  Budget doesn’t link to activities  Lack of resources for administration  Doesn’t handle internal, organisational consequences  Too big (or too small) partnerships  Lack of time (bad log frame approach)

36 CONCLUSION  HOW THE LFA METHOD WORKS DEPENDS WERY MUCH ON ITS USERS  THE LFA IS NO BETTER AND NO WORSE THAN ITS USERS


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