TECH 101 Product Design and Manufacturing. TECH 1012 System Life-Cycle Engineering 2 Major phases in almost all products and in many cases services –Acquisition.
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TECH 1012 System Life-Cycle Engineering 2 Major phases in almost all products and in many cases services –Acquisition phase Need identification Conceptual design Detail design Production or construction –Utilization phase Usage, maintenance, phase out, & disposal. Figures 2.1 & 2.2
6 Steps in Product or Service Development Identification of Needs Accomplishment of Feasibility Study Advance System Planning System Requirements Analysis Technical Performance Measures (TPMs)
TECH 1017 Steps in Product or Service Development continued... Functional Analysis and Allocation Synthesis, Analysis and allocation Synthesis, Analysis and Evaluation System Specification Conceptual Design Review
TECH 1018 Identification of Need Identification of need is the 1st. Step in the conceptual design. –The need or want or desire may be for a new or improvement of a product or a process. It is based on a real or perceived deficiency. Examples: cost, speed, availability, quality, reliability. The deficiency must be well defined. Biases and political factors
TECH 1019 Feasibility Analysis After the needs are identified, alternatives for achieving the objectives must be developed and evaluated for technological, economical, and financial feasibility. Major decisions are made at this early stage.
TECH 10110 Advance System Planning Given the need and a feasible system to fulfill it, the advance planning commences. Figs. 3.1-3.2. In preparing the specifications, it must be stated in terms of “whats and not “hows” unless necessary.
TECH 10113 Systems Requirements Analysis Definition of Operational Requirements Operational distribution or deployment - includes geographical distribution & schedule of deployment Fig. 3.3 Mission profile or scenario - identification of primary mission, and its secondary or alternative mission, etc. Fig. 3.4
TECH 10116 Systems Requirements Analysis continued Performance and related parameters - definition of basic requirements, speed, altitude, range, accuracy, throughput, capacity, etc. Utilization requirements - how often and how much the system is used per shift, per period, for its life cycle.
TECH 10117 Systems Requirements Analysis continued Effectiveness requirements - MTBF, MTBM, MTTR,, and MDT Operational life cycle (horizon) Environment - definition of the environment where the system will be used. In short, answer the following: What function(s), & when will be per- formed, where will it be used, and how will it accomplish its objectives
TECH 10118 Maintenance and Support Requirements The performance of the mission is the most important. Maintenance and its major levels are also important. Fig. 3.5 Levels of maintenance - on what part of the system and where the repair is performed Sys. maintenance & repair policy
TECH 10120 Maintenance and Support Requirements continued Organizational responsibilities - who is responsible for the maintenance? Logistic support elements - includes spare parts, test equipment, personnel, moving & transportation equipment, etc. Effectiveness requirements - support capability Environment - temperature, humidity, dust, vibration, arctic or tropical, etc.
TECH 10121 Functional Analysis & Allocation Functional analysis is the process of translating systems requirements into detailed design criteria. The steps are: –Abstraction of the needs of the customer –Translate the above to hardware, software, facilities, etc.
TECH 10122 Functional Analysis & Allocation continued In the analysis phase, “what” customer’s needs are specified and not how they are going to be achieved. Functional analysis is iterative. It breaks down the requirements and allocates it to subsystems at various hierarchy. The result is a definition of the system in functional terms, design function, production function, etc.
TECH 10123 Functional Analysis & Allocation continued Functional Flow Block Diagram can be used for system functional breakdown. Functional allocation is used to group similar functions into some logical subdivision. Coordination and Integration of activities must initiated at an early stage.
TECH 10124 Synthesis, Analysis, & Evaluation Trade-off in designs, technologies, materials, packaging, make or buy, etc., are made during the life cycle of the project. The trade-off analysis leads synthesis, i.e., combining components that gives a feasible system configuration. In each step of the way, evaluation
TECH 10125 Systems Specification The technical requirements & elements have to be documented. The content of the specification document for type A (top level) system is shown in Fig. 3.16. Type A( Systems Specification): Technical, performance, operational, & support characteristics of the overall system.
TECH 10127 Systems Specification continued Type B ( Development spec.): Development spec., it includes the requirements for any subsystem level. R&D, equipment, & processes are specified along with their performance, effectiveness, etc. Type C ( Product spec.): The same as above, except they are available or can easily be procured.
TECH 10128 Systems Specification continued Type D(Process Spec.): This includes any service or process that must be performed on any component of the system, such as machining, welding, heat treating, etc. Type E (Material Spec.): Tech. Requirements for the raw material, paints, chemicals, etc.
TECH 10129 Conceptual Design Review It is a formalized check Provides a baseline for all project personnel Provides a forum for concurrent engineering Interface problems are addressed Provides a formalized record of design decisions & helps the design to mature