Presentation on theme: " Longstanding rivalry between U.S. and Japan. Expansions for raw materials created tension. July 1941 takes Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. WWI strengthened."— Presentation transcript:
Longstanding rivalry between U.S. and Japan. Expansions for raw materials created tension. July 1941 takes Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. WWI strengthened Japan’s position in east Asia. War in Europe allowed Japan to threaten British, French, and Dutch possessions in the far east. U.S imposed oil sanction-leaving Japan with choice to give up their territorial gains or go to war. ***MAIN REASON FOR ATTACKING PEARL HARBOR.
Political and economic competitors. Defensive strategy of attrition(wearing down). Yamamoto suggested surprise air raid on U.S. pacific fleet to give Japan time for territorial conquests. Yamamoto- Americans would be the most formidable opponents in Japanese history. American carriers- primary target Sunday: the entire fleet would be there, there are no surveillance planes, and good weather was predicted. Most Japanese men were under 20.
Denied all offers of peace on December 6 th, U.S. wanted to guarantee peace in the pacific with peaces talks. Did not want to fight on two fronts. FDR wanted the Japanese to strike first.
24 of 40 torpedo planes were assigned to hit the row and 5 more joined. 21 of 29 hit their targets.(1-Nevada, 2- California, 9-Oklahoma and West Virginia) Disappointed Carriers weren’t there. “Rise or fall of the Empire depends on this battle.” Yamamoto
Honolulu radio station made them aware that they had succeeded in their surprise attack. Started 270 miles north of Pearl Harbor. U.S. attacked J. midget subs 40 min before P.H. attack, but did not comm. This to the fleet. They also attacked the Philippines and Malaya. First wave low bombers, second wave high level bombers.
The aircraft carriers were absent from the harbor We needed them in order to fight a war in the Pacific.
“A day that will live in Infamy” The U.S. declared war on Japan on December 8 th, Germany, Italy, and Japan declared war on the U.S on the 11th. 2,335 U.S. servicemen died, 68 civilians, 55 Japanese aircrew and 9 Japanese submariners. 1,178 were wounded. “We have awakened a sleeping giant and have instilled in him a terrible resolve.” -Yamamoto
Rationing Women in the workplace Rosie the riveter Entertainment to highlight war Many war themed movies/actors in war Baseball went on Music (“Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy”) War Gardens Propaganda Cartoons and posters (“Der Fuhrer’s Face”)
***U.S. joining the war made it a world wide struggle and was a turning point in the war.
The Secretary of War met with FDR to ask for authorization to remove alien and citizen Japanese to detention camps Government leaders in CA, OR, and WA, insisted that the Japanese residents be placed in isolation farther inland. Amache, CO Gila River, AR Heart Mountain, WY Jerome, AR Manzanar, CA Minidoka, ID Poston, AZ Rohwer, AR Topaz, UT Tula Lake, CA Evacuated more than 112,000 people-majority of which were citizens.
They were taken into camps. Hawaii in early 1942 Exec. Order 9066 in Feb. CA,AZ,WA,OR 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan-all were white. When they were eventually freed, they still faced racism when looking for jobs and new homes.
They were forced to sell their home, cars, etc… within 2-3 days and they lost a LOT of money because of how quickly they were taken. Americans assumed they were spies, sabotaging the food supply, an planting mines in harbors.
Stood in line for food Prison-like with barbed wire fences and armed guards. A family of five or six occupied a single room of 25 by 20 feet. Home like a horse stable Wooden bunk beds and couch People made the best of situation and created schools, churches, rec. centers, papers, sports teams, etc… Workers earned an average of $16 per month for a 44-hour week Despite the fact that most residents were U.S. citizens, many of them buying war bonds and making significant donations to the American Red Cross, they were now denied the right to become U.S. citizens.
In Hunt, ID Nisei: Japanese American born in U.S.-is a citizen. Reimbursed and apologized to over 40 years after the end of the war.
Executive Order 9066 was rescinded by FDR in 1944, and the last of the camps was closed in March Financial restitution of $20,000 to each of the affected families-years later(1990)