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– The Need for Hydrography – Updated: 16/01/2013 International Hydrographic Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "– The Need for Hydrography – Updated: 16/01/2013 International Hydrographic Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 – The Need for Hydrography – Updated: 16/01/2013 International Hydrographic Organization

2 IHO definition : the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, …. …. for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, …. …. for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection

3 Hydrography provides the fundamental backdrop for almost everything that happens in, on or under the sea

4 … without hydrography - - no ship sails

5 … without hydrography - - no port is built

6 … without hydrography - - no offshore infrastructure is developed

7 … without hydrography - - no environmental plan is implemented

8 … without hydrography - - no shore is defended, no island protected

9 … without hydrography - - no rescue is attempted

10 … without hydrography - - no maritime boundary is delimited

11 Hydrography supports : Safety of navigation Safety of navigation Protection of marine environment Protection of marine environment National infrastructure development National infrastructure development Coastal zone management Coastal zone management Marine exploration Marine exploration Resource exploitation – minerals, fishing Resource exploitation – minerals, fishing Maritime boundary delimitation (UNCLOS, others) Maritime boundary delimitation (UNCLOS, others) Maritime defence and security Maritime defence and security Disaster management Disaster management

12 Inadequate hydrography means : risk of marine accidents increases risk of marine accidents increases – environmental pollution – loss of life shipping lacks confidence in ports and routes shipping lacks confidence in ports and routes international trade is limited international trade is limited missed economic opportunities missed economic opportunities environmental impacts environmental impacts potential liability and litigation potential liability and litigation

13 what is the cost of : what is the cost of : under-developed ports?under-developed ports? using complex and hazardous shipping routes?using complex and hazardous shipping routes? lack of fundamental planning data for the coast and seas?lack of fundamental planning data for the coast and seas? imprecise disaster planning models?imprecise disaster planning models? limited sea room for patrol vessels?limited sea room for patrol vessels?

14 Cost versus Benefit Studies Australia ( 1992 ) Canada ( 1992 ) APEC ( 2002 ) Australia ( 1992 ) Canada ( 1992 ) APEC ( 2002 ) different analysis approaches: different analysis approaches: “ what would happen if the charts weren’t there ? ”“ what would happen if the charts weren’t there ? ” “ what if no further hydrography took place ? ”“ what if no further hydrography took place ? ” Cost vs Benefit ratios greater than1:10 ! Cost vs Benefit ratios greater than1:10 !

15 – Hydrographic Services – International Obligations International Obligations

16 Mariners’ Obligations Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Chapter V SOLAS V/19 – Carriage requirements for Nav equipment …shall carry nautical charts and publications … …shall carry nautical charts and publications … …issued officially by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution …. …issued officially by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution …. … [adhering to] IHO specifications and guidelines … [adhering to] IHO specifications and guidelines SOLAS V/27 – Nautical charts and nautical publications …adequate and up to date …adequate and up to date

17 Governmental Obligations SOLAS V/9 – provision of hydrographic services Contracting governments undertake to arrange to collect and compile hydrographic data, and to publish, disseminate and update all nautical information necessary for safe navigation; Contracting governments undertake to arrange to collect and compile hydrographic data, and to publish, disseminate and update all nautical information necessary for safe navigation; Obtain uniformity in charts and nautical publications and to take into account whenever possible the relevant international resolutions and recommendations, adopted by the IHO; and Obtain uniformity in charts and nautical publications and to take into account whenever possible the relevant international resolutions and recommendations, adopted by the IHO; and Co-ordinate activities and ensure global availability of hydrographic and nautical information Co-ordinate activities and ensure global availability of hydrographic and nautical information

18 Governmental Obligations SOLAS V/4 – navigational warnings  …take all steps necessary to ensure that, when intelligence of any dangers is received from whatever reliable source, it shall be promptly brought to the knowledge of those concerned and communicated to other interested Governments

19 SOLAS Chapter 5 regulations 9 and 4 This means each State must ensure that : hydrographic surveys are carried out hydrographic surveys are carried out appropriate nautical charts and other nautical publications are available and up to date appropriate nautical charts and other nautical publications are available and up to date Maritime Safety Information (MSI) is promulgated Maritime Safety Information (MSI) is promulgated

20 SOLAS V/9, SOLAS V/4 ( provision of hydrographic services and navigational warnings ) … are International Obligations under Treaty Law … apply to ALL Contracting Governments

21 Other Governmental Obligations UN Resolution A.53/32 - The Year of the Ocean s ….. invites States to cooperate in carrying out hydrographic surveys and in providing nautical services for the purpose of ensuring safe navigation as well as to ensure the greatest uniformity in charts and nautical publications and to coordinate their activities so that hydrography and nautical information is available on a world-wide scale UN Resolution A.53/32 - The Year of the Ocean s ….. invites States to cooperate in carrying out hydrographic surveys and in providing nautical services for the purpose of ensuring safe navigation as well as to ensure the greatest uniformity in charts and nautical publications and to coordinate their activities so that hydrography and nautical information is available on a world-wide scale

22 UNCLOS 1982 Charts are required to support: Establishing baselines Establishing baselines Delimiting Sea Areas Delimiting Sea Areas –Territorial Sea, EEZ,Continental Shelf, etc Identifying traffic separation schemes Identifying traffic separation schemes Identifying sea lanes transit and innocent passage routes Identifying sea lanes transit and innocent passage routes Deploying submarine cables and pipelines Deploying submarine cables and pipelines Conducting drilling on the seafloor Conducting drilling on the seafloor Conduct of Marine Scientific Research Conduct of Marine Scientific Research

23 Meeting Governmental Obligations SOLAS V/9 and V/4 can be satisfied: directly via governmentdirectly via government through bi-lateral cooperation with other Statesthrough bi-lateral cooperation with other States using commercial support providersusing commercial support providers - in whole or in part Overall responsibility and obligation to ensure that a national hydrographic service is provided remains with the Government

24 - Role of the IHO -

25 IHO intergovernmental consultative and technical organization intergovernmental consultative and technical organization established in 1921 established in 1921 to support safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment to support safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment

26 IHO Mission … to facilitate the provision of adequate and timely hydrographic information … to facilitate the provision of adequate and timely hydrographic information … for world-wide marine navigation and other purposes … for world-wide marine navigation and other purposes … through the co-ordination of the endeavours of national hydrographic offices … through the co-ordination of the endeavours of national hydrographic offices

27 History 1908International Congress of Navigation, St Petersburg 1912International Maritime Conference, St Petersburg 1919International Hydrographic Conference, London 1921IHB established by 24 nations in Monaco 1970International Convention: established 2005Protocol of Amendments to the IHO Convention 2012 …awaiting majority of Member States’ approval to amendments

28 IHO Member States – 2013

29

30 International Hydrographic Bureau IHO Secretariat 19 Personnel 3 Directors3 Directors 5 Assistant Directors5 Assistant Directors Translators2 + 1 Translators 8 Supporting Staff8 Supporting Staff

31 Regional Hydrographic Commissions Capacity Building Sub-Committee INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC CONFERENCE INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC BUREAU Hydrographic Services and Standards Committee (HSSC) Finance Committee (FC) Finance Committee (FC) Inter-Regional Coordination Committee (IRCC) other WGs as required WGs as required other WGs as required Technical Working Program Regional Coordination

32 International Hydrographic Bureau Secretariat Secretariat 15 technical standards 15 technical standards 10 associated guidelines 10 associated guidelines 18 other publications 18 other publications Direct support to 40 bodies ( Committees, WGs and RHCs ) Direct support to 40 bodies ( Committees, WGs and RHCs ) Conference organisation Conference organisation External representation External representation bi-lingual website bi-lingual website

33 IHO Decision Making Committees and WGs only provide proposals Committees and WGs only provide proposals Unless decided at a Conference Unless decided at a Conference ALL Member States are consultedALL Member States are consulted simple majority required for technical decisions 2/3 majority required for other matters simple majority required for technical decisions 2/3 majority required for other matters Not responding, is in effect = “NO”Not responding, is in effect = “NO” Normal procedure for many inter-governmental organizations Normal procedure for many inter-governmental organizations

34 Regional Hydrographic Commissions regional co-ordination of regional co-ordination of nautical information nautical information hydrographic surveys hydrographic surveys production of nautical charts and documents production of nautical charts and documents trainingtraining technical cooperationtechnical cooperation hydrographic capacity building projectshydrographic capacity building projects

35 Regional Hydrographic Commissions Governed by Statutes - NOT IHO regulations

36 – IHO Capacity Building –

37 Capacity Building Sub Committee Objectives : continuously assess hydrographic surveying, nautical charting and nautical information status in nations and regions where hydrography is developing continuously assess hydrographic surveying, nautical charting and nautical information status in nations and regions where hydrography is developing establish and maintain close relationships with national agencies and international organizations, to identify funding and technical assistance establish and maintain close relationships with national agencies and international organizations, to identify funding and technical assistance cooperate with Regional Hydrographic Commissions cooperate with Regional Hydrographic Commissions

38 Capacity Building Strategy Awareness Raise priority of Hydrography Awareness Raise priority of Hydrography Assessment Identify and prioritize problems Assessment Identify and prioritize problems Analysis Identify Projects based on national/regional priorities Analysis Identify Projects based on national/regional priorities Action Implementation of Activities. Follow-up Action Implementation of Activities. Follow-up

39 Phases of Hydrographic Capacity Building Preliminary Preliminary Raise awarenessRaise awareness Phase One Phase One Collection and circulation of nautical information needed to maintain existing charts and publications Collection and circulation of nautical information needed to maintain existing charts and publications Phase Two Phase Two Capacity to conduct hydrographic surveys, data gathering and processingCapacity to conduct hydrographic surveys, data gathering and processing Phase Three Phase Three Production of charts and publicationsProduction of charts and publications

40 IHO Capacity Building Fund Fund supports: Technical Assistance Technical Assistance Training and Education Training and Education Financial Assistance Financial Assistance Start-up Projects Start-up Projects Proposals submitted via Regional Hydrographic Commissions Proposals submitted via Regional Hydrographic Commissions

41 – Conclusion –

42 Benefits of IHO Membership Develop the national hydrographic service Develop the national hydrographic service Improve safety of navigation Improve safety of navigation Increase wealth from the sea and ocean Increase wealth from the sea and ocean Gain access to capacity building support Gain access to capacity building support Access regional and bi-lateral cooperation programmes Access regional and bi-lateral cooperation programmes

43 International Hydrographic Organization International Hydrographic Bureau 4 b, Quai Antoine 1 er B.P. 445 MC MONACO CEDEX Principauté de Monaco Telephone: Fax: WEB Site:


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