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Session Twelve Session Twelve 七、 Repetition Repetition is defined as saying the same thing again, though perhaps with a significant difference. Repetition,

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Presentation on theme: "Session Twelve Session Twelve 七、 Repetition Repetition is defined as saying the same thing again, though perhaps with a significant difference. Repetition,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Session Twelve Session Twelve 七、 Repetition Repetition is defined as saying the same thing again, though perhaps with a significant difference. Repetition, including repetition of key words and key phrases and that of similar structures, is an important rhetorical device employed to. Aptly used, repetition is very impressive and rhetorical. e.g.

2 stress the tone, to bring out the message, and to link up what goes before with what comes after. In English advertising, repetition, especially that of key words or sentences, is used to emphasize some important aspects of the advertised product or service or certain information, so as to attract and stimulate Consumers. Aptly used, repetition is very im- pressive and rhetorical. e.g. (1)Look. Lustrous eye-shadows with new Silk glide Formula. Look again.

3 Colors that last so long. Blend so smooth. Stay so true. (That’s no lie!) Look again. 35 jewel-like tones to try combinations for just 2 eyes. Look again. A life of perfect coordination. CUSTOM EYES from Relvon. Look again. And you’ll never look again. (2) NEVER NEVER

4 NEVER COMPROMISE QUALITY EVER (3) Pick up on mighty Pentium Processor power. Pick up on outstanding value for money. Pick up on better desktop choice. Pick up on increase mobility. Pick up on assured peace of mind. (4) ARE YOU Looking for that special place to relax? Looking for that special place with peace and quiet?

5 Looking for that special place with safe play areas and tennis court? Looking for that special place as a base for golf, touring or walking? LOOKING NO FURTHER The Scandinavian lodges are ideal for your self-catering holiday… In Example (1), “look again” is repeated five times, which projects the remarkable qualities of the product and leaves a deep impression on readers’ minds.Example (2) is an ad for

6 Bijan perfume, here “never” is repeated nine times, which impresses readers deeply. Nega- tive form, because of the strong negative ef- fect this form carries, is the least used syntac- tic feature in advertising. Whenever it is used in advertising, a negative sentence expresses a strong positive meaning by negating a certain undesirable aspect. Here the verb “compro- mise” means “bring shame to or put into a dishonorable position”. Example (2) undoub- tedly expresses a highly positive idea: Quality always goes first with us. The negative sentence implies that the greatest importance is attached

7 quality of the product, and that the greatest effort is made to achieve the best quality, thus creating a wonderful image of the brand. In current society, people tend to be more socia- ble and attend some kinds of parties. They often like to use perfume to make them more attractive. The advertised perfume with top quality will be their first choice. In example (3), the phrasal verb Pick up on appears five times, respectively in the headline and in the sub-headlines. Undoubtedly, the idea expressed by Pick up on is what the

8 advertiser wants toemphasize. Also, the re- petition of the phrasal verb renders the headline and the sub-headline parallel and forceful, which will arouse readers’ interest and possess strong persuasive effect. In Example (4), Looking for that special place turns up four times in succession in four consecutive questions, rendering the ques- tions parallel and rhythmical and very impres- sive. In fact, the repetition of Looking for that special place makes the ad text smooth enough to read, enhances its rhythm, and adds to its persuasiveness, which draws the readers’ at- tention to the amenities of the lodges advertised.

9 Psychologists hold the view that for a message to cross the stage of perception and enter into memory, people need to be exposed to it at least for three times or even more. This explains why some advertisers use repetition in their advertisements to express the message and to reinforce memory. Furthermore, the repeti- tion serves as an reinforcement to the initial impression the audience get when coming across an advertisement. As a result, the audience will possibly remember the promo- ted product for quite a long period.

10 八、 Parallelism (排比结构) “Formal schemes, or parallelisms, are often ‘rhetorical’ in a familiar sense of the word, in that they heighten the emotional tone of the message, giving insistent emphasis to points of strategic importance” (Leech, 1966:190). Parallelism also could be thought as a kind of repetition due to accompaniment of repeti- tion, but phrases or sentences with the same or similar structure, relative meaning and con- sistent mood are coordinately used in the sen- tence. It can show strong feelings easily, stress

11 the information and strengthen the vigor of language. Meanwhile, its orderly pattern drills, trenchant rhythm can add to the rhyme of advertising language. Parallelism is a powerful rhetorical device frequently employed in Eng- lish ads. Let’s analyze some examples. (1) On this planet, more people get their news from Time than any other single source--- over 30 million people, worldwide. We’ll tell you the odds before they are out. We’ll pub- lish what other publications dare not. We’ll give you inside information you won’t find elsewhere.

12 We’ll give you inside information you won’t find elsewhere. (2)It is made differently. It is made using skills and techniques that others have lost or for- gotten. It is made with attention to detail very few people would notice. It is made, we have to admit, with a total disregard for time. (3)CHRISTIAN DIOR Christian Dior MASCARA PARFAIT PERFECTION IN THE WINK OF AN EYE. PERFECTION IN ITS FORMULAR.

13 PERFECTION IN ITS BRUSH. PERFECTION IN A LOOK. (4) Embrace change, and you will win Tiptronic transmission provides ultimate driving pleasure Stay in the lead, and you will win Unsurpassed power from a 2.8l V6 30v engine Go the distance, and you will win Fully zinc galvanized bodywork with a 12 year anti-rust guarantee Expect the unexpected, and you will win Four front and side airbags provide better protection Triumph over adversity, and you will win

14 ABS/EDS system makes light work of the most harsh road conditions Always have room in heart, and you will win Enlarged, spacious inner cabin provides maximum driving comfort. Stand firm, and you will win Overall car body strength is increased by superior laser welding technology. Drive Passat, and you will win Achievers of tomorrow

15 In the above-quoted advertisements, Example (1) is the body copy of a press advertisement. It consists of four sentences, three of which begin with we’ll and form a typical parallel structure, which sounds rhythmical and power- ful. Appropriate application of parallelism underlines the characteristic of the magazine and builds up a good image of the advertiser. Example (2) is the body copy of a clock advert. The parallelism is supported by repetition of It is made. Appropriate application of paralle- lism reinforces the traditional characteristic in

16 is the body copy of a mascara parfait advert. In this advert, perfection in appears four times. The parallelism involved in this example, toge- ther with the repetition , builds up a wonder- ful image of the effect of using this cosmetic in the readers’ minds. Example (4) is an ad for promotion of the sale of a type of cars with the brand name Passat. In this advertisement, the conjunction and and the main clause you will win are repeated seven times. The paral- lelism involved in this example, together with the repetition , builds up a wonderful image

17 of the car in the readers’ mind, which will deep- ly impress the prospective consumers and sti- mulate their desire to get it. Parallelism is widely found in English advert- isements, where parallel sentences usually build up to a climax. By applying parallelism, the copy-writer intends to heighten the emo- tional tone of the advertising theme, to project the main idea, or to create a good and reliable image of the product or the service being ad- vertised.

18 九、 Parody (模仿,仿效) Mottoes, proverbs or idioms are fixed fa- mous sentences in daily life, which reflect simple but real morals. Because they have already been accepted as truths for a long time, the use of them makes advertisements easier to be accepted. Parody is the deliber- ate imitation of them with some words changed to express a new idea. Parody is concise, implicative and profound in meaning. With a remarkable rhetorical effect, parody enables readers to take account of implied meanings.

19 Advertisements are designed to sell things or ideas. The essence of an advertising copy aims at relating designative and associative meanings in the closest possible way, since ‘ selling ’ usually depends far more on associa- tive meanings than on designative ones. Most people buy with their emotions, not with their minds (Nida, 1993: ). Associative mea- nings are closely linked to rhetorical devices. That is why parody as a rhetorical device is often employed in English advertisements. Now let’s see some examples.

20 (1)All roads lead to Holiday Inn. (Holiday Inn) (2) Not all cars are created equal. Performance or economy? That’s the question every car buyer asks, and which every manufacturer must find a better answer to. Or is it? ( Mitsubishi Car) (3) By the people. For the people. To the people. (AST computer )134 (4) A Mars a day keeps you work, rest and play.

21 Example (1) is an advertisement for Holiday Inn. Seeing this headline, you will be reminded of the famous saying: All roads lead to Rome. This saying is often related to success, which will create a pleasant impression on the pros- pective consumers. People might think living in Holiday Inn will bring them good luck. Exam- ple (2) is an advert for promotion of the sale of cars by the Japanese company in U.S.A. The headline will remind American people of the most famous saying “ All men are created equal.” in the Declaration. of Independence

22 by Thomas Jefferson, who is considered as one of the most talented presidents in Ameri- can history. The headline, which imitates this famous saying, attracts great attention, its ne- gative form projecting the remarkable qualities of the product. The advertiser cleverly makes good use of the famous saying by changing “All men are created equal.” into “ Not all cars are created equal.” The parody, on the one hand, gives prominence to the superiority of the product, and on the other hand, leaves a deep impression on the Americans by means

23 seeing the body copy, Americans with some knowledge of English literature all know that it is a variant of the famous opening sentence in Hamlet by Shakespeare, so it creates a strong literary atmosphere. Example (3) is an advertisement for promotion of the sale of AST computer. It is a parody of a famous sen- tence in “Address at Gettysburg” by President Lincoln, whose reputation among US presidents remains unsurpassed. Lincoln is one of the most influential men in the history of mankind. He overcame insurmountable obstacles and

24 challenges to become the sixteenthpresident of the United States of America. His famous saying “ …and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” in Gettysburg is considered to be one of the most inspiring speeches ever written. It is hard not to be moved by these words. The copy-writer changes “ …govern- ment of the people, by the people, for the peo- ple …” into “ By the people. For the people. To the people.” How apt and vivid the imitation is! People with some knowledge of American

25 history might be attracted by the advert. What’s more, the mental link established between the product and a famous person will prevail for some time, hence, the retention of the message in readers’ minds. As a result, some prospec- tive purchasers would take real action. Exam- ple (4) may make almost all native speakers and learners of English immediately remem- ber the two proverbs “ An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” and “ All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” Naturally, it seems that people will be healthy (“ keeps the doctor

26 away”) and clever(“not become a dull boy) if they eat this kind of chocolate every day. This ad also reminded me of the famous remarks: “Advertising is the main weapon that manufac- turers use in their attempt to ‘produce’ an ade- quate consuming market for their products. To this end advertising works to create false needs in people (false because they are the needs of manufacturers rather than consumers)”(Jhally, S. 1990: 3). In modern society, people wish to be healthy and successful at the same time. The advertiser makes much effort just to stimulate people’s

27 consumption desire. The two proverbs are familiar to most people, who will accept and memorize this advertisement easily. In addition to the above-mentioned frequent- ly used rhetorical devices, other devices such as hyperbole and rhyme are likewise often used in English advertising. In fact, rhetorical devices are frequently and properly employed in English advertising, creating charming images of com- modities, services and advertisers, projecting special features or unique characteristics of advertised products and services, and promo- ting the sale of products and services.

28 It is to be noted that rhetorical devices are frequently employed in English advertising to emphasize the special features or unique cha- racteristics of the product or service being ad- vertised, to project good images of the brand and the manufacturer, to persuade potential customers to take action, etc. When persua- sion is the main objective, the method in which the statement is expressed may be more im- portant than its content. In advertising, strict regulations require that any information imparted has to be legally binding and therefore abso- lutely correct, so the advertiser may choose to

29 employ a rhetorical device in order to shift the emphasis from concrete ‘facts’ to a less concrete and more emotional level. As a result, a car may be advertised as being ‘reassuring’ rather than making the claim that it is ‘reliable’. 

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