Presentation on theme: "Presented by : Done by Group C2. Case Hx G5 P4 + 0 lady, in active labour pain. Admitted to the hospital and she delivered a 3.8 kg baby. Immediately."— Presentation transcript:
Presented by : Done by Group C2
Case Hx G5 P4 + 0 lady, in active labour pain. Admitted to the hospital and she delivered a 3.8 kg baby. Immediately after the placental delivery she had heavy vaginal bleeding. DDX management
Maternal mortality Hemorrhage Infection Hypertension Thromboembolism Every year, women die because of postpartum hemorrhage – one every 4 minutes
Definition Estimated blood loss with vaginal delivery: > 500cc Estimated blood loss with C/S: > 1000cc 1ry : within 24h after delivery 2ndry : after 24h up to weeks
Avoid underestimating significant bleeding Don’t underestimate EBL Don’t disregard slow but unrelenting trickle If signs of shock* without high EBL, must consider hidden bleeding (internal injury, hidden hematoma) Requires urgent treatment
A 60 kg pregnant has 6L of blood volume at 30 weeks
Epidemiology Incidence : 4 % 88 % of deaths are seen in the first 4 hrs Abdominal or pelvic bleeding can be hidden
Early postpartum hemorrhage causes Uterine atony Genital tract trauma Retained placental tissue Low placental implantation due to relative musculature in the LUS so insufficient control of bleeding Uterine inversion Coagulation disorders Abruptio placentae Amniotic fluid embolism Retained dead fetus Inherited coagulopathy
Four “Ts”* Tone Uterine atony Tissue Retained products Trauma Tears, abrasions Thrombin...- Clotting disruptions
Clinical presentation The patient whether presents with Vaginal Bleeding OR Severe hypovolemic shock
“Tone: Think of Uterine Atony” Uterine atony causes 80% of hemorrhage failure of uterus to contract after placental separation
Bimanual Uterine Exam Confirms diagnosis of uterine atony: the fundus is soft “ boggy “, poorly contracting
Initial Assessment (orders) Remember ABCs Check the vitals and correct the shock state Start a large-bore IV Obtain CBC Platelet count, PT, PTT Blood crossmatch (keep 4 units of packed RBCs in hand ) IV infusion of norm.saline or ringer lactate (it’s best to avoid glucose containing fluids) 3ml of crystalloid / ml of EBL
Initial Assessment (orders).cont. Insert urethral catheter to monitor urine output Blood and blood product transfusion may be required if blood loss is continuing, if the blood volume lost is over 30%, or if the patient’s clinical status reflects developing shock despite aggressive resuscitation
Management Bimanual Uterine massage is often adequate for stimulating uterine involution. medications
Oxytocin ( pitocin ) promotes rhythmic contractions of the upper uterine segment Give IM or IU, no rapid IV infusion (Can cause BP) 10 – 40 U in 1 L NS at 250cc/h. / IV Can get Antidiuretic effect in very high doses
Methylergonovine Methergine 0.2 mg IM only Max. of 3 doses contracts both upper and lower uterine segments tetanically causes vasoconstriction and hypertension contraindicated in hypertension side effects: HTN, nausea, vomitting
Prostaglandins F2 Hemabate 0.25mg intramyometrial q 15min Rapid response 3-10 minutes Max. 8 doses Avoid in asthmatic patients. This is 80% to 90% effective in stopping PPH in cases that are refractory to oxytocin and ergometrine
misoprostol Cytotec Recent data indicates that it can be used as 1 st line 800 – 1000 mcg rectally
Other measures Uterine packing or tamponade When uterotonic agents fail Useful in cases of placenta praevia or accreta Either gauze or Foley, Sangestaikin blakemore tube Recent reports of large series have confirmed the high success rates of balloon devices Uterine artery embolization by placing angiocatheter and injecting thrombogenic material
Exploratory laparotomy : B-lynch technique : effective in uterine atony Bilateral uterine artery ligation Hypogastric artery ligation Suprecervical or TAH is the definitive treatment for intractable PPH
Human recombinant factor VIIa New treatment to control severe, life threatening hemorrhage It acts on the extrinsic clotting pathway Cessation of bleeding occurs in minutes
2-Tissue: Retained placenta Prolong 3 rd stage of delivery( > 30 minutes) seen in ~ 6% of deliveries. Prior retained placenta. Prior manual removal of placenta Prior C/S, curettage p-pregnancy, uterine infection, and increased parity. Prior C/S scar & previa (25%) Most patients have no risk factors.
US evaluation of retained tissue should be performed before uterine instrumentation
Brandt-Andrews maneuver To determine if the placenta has separated Firm traction is applied to the umbilical cord with one hand while the other applies suprapubic counterpressure
Abnormal adherent placenta Caused by missing or defective decidual layer. Placenta Accreta: Placenta adherent to myometrium. Placenta Increta: myometrial invasion. Placenta Percreta: penetration of myometrium to or beyond serosa.
Placenta Accreta: Most common type. With incidence of % if previous C/S or previa The incidence increase as the no. of previous C/S increased Prior uterine surgery and placenta praevia in the current pregnancy r 2 important RF – US and color doppler TAH is the definitive treatment
Placenta accreta and uterine atony are the 2 commonest causes of postpartum hysterectomy
Removal of Abnormal Placenta Oxytocin 10U in 20cc of NS placed in clamped umbilical vein. If this fails, get OB assistance. Check Hct, type & cross 2-4 u. Two large bore IVs. Anesthesia support.
Removal of Abnormal Placenta Relax uterus with halothane general anesthetic and subcutaneous terbutaline. Bleeding will increase dramatically. With fingertips, identify cleavage plane between placenta and uterus. Keep placenta intact. Remove all of the placenta.
Removal of Abnormal Placenta If successful, reverse uterine atony with oxytocin, Methergine, Hemabate. Consider surgical set-up prior to separation. If manual removal not successful, large blunt curettage or suction catheter, with high risk of perforation, so to be done on US guidance Consider prophylactic antibiotics.
Trauma (3rd “T”) (cervical, vaginal and preineal laceration) Suspected if bleeding persists and uterine fundus is contracting. Episiotomy Hematoma Uterine inversion Uterine rupture In C/S LT laterl extension of the incision can damage ascending branches of the uterine a while inferior extension damages the cervical branches.
Repair of cervical laceration At the two lateral angles while dilating the first stage. Repair lacerations quickly. Place initial suture above the apex of laceration to control retracted arteries.
Vulvar Hematomas more likely w/ operative vaginal deliveries and episiotomies excessive unilateral swelling and pain Hematomas less than 3cm in diameter can be observed expectantly. If larger or expanding, incision and evacuation of clot is necessary. Irrigate and ligate bleeding vessels. With diffuse oozing, perform layered closure to eliminate dead space. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be given
Limited from spread by fascia lata Central tendon of the perineum prevents it from crossing the midline
Uterine rupture association
Retroperitoneal heamtoma more likely after C/S delivery – symptom may be shock, excess flank pain.
Uterine Inversion Rare: ~1/2500 deliveries Turning inside out of the uterus C/F: Acute abdominal pain Blue-gray mass protruding from vagina. Suspect if shock disproportionate to blood loss
Causes include: ◦ Uterine atony. Excessive traction on cord while exerting fundal pressure before complete placental separation ◦ Manual removal of the placenta ◦ Abnormal placentation ◦ Uterine anomalies
Avoid excessive cord traction, and always guard the uterus when applying traction Hypotension worsened by vaso-vagal reaction. Consider atropine 0.5mg IV if bradycardia is severe.
Uterine Inversion: Replace through Cervix
Uterine Inversion: Restitution
If replacement is unsuccessful : Uterine relaxant agents like NG IV ( 100 ug ), Terbutaline, MgSO4
Uterine Rupture Complete separation of the uterine wall Incidence is 0.5 % Prior scar in 40 %
Uterine Rupture Suspect if: sudden change in FHR tracing Fetal parts easily palpated abdominally Fetal bradycardia in 50 – 70 % of cases vaginal bleeding abdominal tenderness maternal tachycardia signs of shock are out of proportion to visible blood loss R/O abruptio placenta Rx : ABCs. IV fluids. Immediate laparotomy and deliver the infant and repair the scar
Thrombosis (4th “T”) Coagulopathies are rare. Pre-existing conditions (congenital) ◦ ITP, von Willebrands Obstetric-related ◦ Hypertensive disorders, HELLP ◦ Abruption ◦ Fetal demise ◦ Sepis Drugs (e.g. aspirin) Suspect if oozing from puncture sites noted. Work up with platelets, PT, PTT, fibrinogen level, fibrin split products, and possibly antithrombin III.
Maintain: Fibrinogen > 100mg/dl with FFP Platelets > 50,000 with packed platelets Hematocrit > 30% with PRBCs
AFE 1/ pregnancies Causes 10 % of maternal deaths in US Mortality rate is 80 % S & S : ◦ Hypoxia ◦ Hypotension and shock ◦ Altered mental status ◦ DIC ◦ Bronchospasm Clinical diagnosis Labs : ABG, electrolytes, CBC and coagulation profile Definitive diagnosis is demonstrating the fetal squamous cells and lanugo in the pulmonary vascular space
Rx : ABC Intubation IV access with volume support, inotropic agents and pressors PRBC and FFP as coagulopathy risk is 50 % in the first 2 hrs.
Management of excessive bleeding once vitally stable Regardless of the cause, replacing RBC mass is mandatory 2 iron tablets ( each 300 mg ) PPH in subsequent pregnancies occurs in 10 %
Late postpartum hemorrhage It complicates 1 % of pregnancies Late hemorrhage is more likely due to: Subinvolution of the uterus. Endometritis. Uterine fibroid Retained placental fragment. Coagulopathy and blood dyscariasis ◦V◦VWD is present in % of adults with menorrhagia as pregnancy elevates factor 8 level, and drops postpartumply Treatment : ( depend on the cause ) ◦U◦Uterotonic agents ◦A◦Antibiotics ◦C◦Currettage
Prevention Active Management of 3 rd stage of labour ◦ Oxytocic is given ◦ Cord is clamped ◦ Placenta delivered by controlled cord traction (CCT) with counter-traction on the fundus ◦ Fundal massage evidence supports use of oxytocin after delivery of anterior shoulder, or more commonly in the U.S after the delivery of the placenta ◦ Strong research support for use of post partum administration of pitocin