PLACENTA PRAEVIA Predisposing factors Previous Caesarean Section Most have no known cause – presumed late implantation
Local & Unknown Causes of APH Rupture of uterus Carcinoma of cervix Trauma Cervical polyp Bilharzia of cervix ? Edge bleed ? Haemorrhoids
Obstetric Haemorrhage Induction of labour with oxytocin is associated with an increased rate of uterine rupture in gravid women with 1 prior uterine scar, in comparison with the rate in spontaneously labouring women.
Abruptio Placentae Features Pain and tenderness Often I.U.F.D “Hypotension on hypertension” Clotting defects Renal impairment
Antepartum Haemorrhage Exclude abruption, uterine rupture, placenta praevia with labour Is she stable? - ?BP, pulse Check Abdomen - previous C/S scar, fundal height and uterine tenderness Check FH Vaginal examination and ARM
Abruptio Placentae Resuscitate - FDP, whole blood Monitor BP and urine output Give oxytocin infusion or prostaglandin if necessary to induce contractions Avoid Caesarean Section unless salvageable baby, or no progress Watch out for PPH
Placenta Praevia Diagnose by Ultrasound Resuscitate, monitor BP and amount of bleeding Persistent bleeding requires delivery whatever the gestation 34 weeks - buy time for steroids prevent contractions with indocid
Placenta Praevia Transfer anterior placenta praevia Elective caesarean if 37 weeks Never cut through the placenta Lower segment may need to be packed
Post Partum Haemorrhage Predisposing factors Antepartum haemorrhage Multiple pregnancy Prolonged labour Caesarean Section
Post Partum Haemorrhage Causes *Uterine atony *Obstetric trauma
Post Partum Haemorrhage Atonic uterus (soft uterus) *Compression - bimanual is best *Oxytocin - 10 units IV *Syntometrine 1 amp IM *PgF2α 5mg in 500 ml IV *Misoprostol (PgE1) 1mg (5 tabs) rectally Trauma (hard uterus) * Vaginal tears are most common * Cervical tears rare unless instrumental * Remember the ruptured uterus * Uterine inversion
Post Partum Haemorrhage Other causes Instrumental Delivery After Caesarean Section Infection - 2° PPH Retained placental fragments
Post Partum Haemorrhage Rub up a contraction Get help Insert two large bore IV lines - Haes-Steril Give an oxytocic Explore digitally for fragments and tears Explore with speculum for tears - especially cervix Evacuate under GA
Rupture of Uterus Two types True rupture Dehiscence of scar
Rupture of Uterus True Rupture Contractions stop Continuous pain Tender abdomen Fundus ill-defined PV Bleeding Fetal heart dips or absent fetal heart Scar Dehiscence Dehiscence may be silent – no bleeding Fetal distress Haematuria Vague uterine outline Failed induction
Rupture of Uterus High Index of suspicion in grande multips and in scarred uteri All cases of Ante and Intra partum haemorrhage must exclude rupture Laparotomy if suspected Repair or Hysterectomy?