Presentation on theme: "What is a Stroke? Lumen ventricle A stroke is an injury to the brain caused by interruption of its blood flow, or by bleeding into or around the brain."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Stroke? Lumen ventricle A stroke is an injury to the brain caused by interruption of its blood flow, or by bleeding into or around the brain. It produces neurologic deficits that can have a relatively sudden onset and persist for more than 24 hours. It can also kill the patient.
Common Neurologic Deficits Produced by a Stroke Common Neurologic Deficits Produced by a Stroke Lumen ventricle Weakness or paralysis, usually on one side only Loss of sensation, usually on one side only Problems with vision Difficulty in talking or understanding what is said Difficulty with organization or perception Clumsiness or lack of balance
STROKE FACTS All data refer to the United States STROKE FACTS All data refer to the United States Lumen ventricle At least 600,000 people suffer a stroke each year Stroke is the third leading cause of death Death rate following stroke has fallen 13.9% in the past 10 years, but stroke deaths rose 6.6% (this presumably reflects an increase in the number of strokes) About 4,400,000 stroke survivors are alive today Cost of stroke-related care is over $51 billion yearly Risk of having a stroke and of dying from one increases with age, yet many strokes occur in those under 65
Two Major Mechanisms Produce Strokes Two Major Mechanisms Produce Strokes Lumen ventricle Blockage of an artery (80% of strokes) -- produces ischemia (inadequate blood flow) This deprives the brain of oxygen and glucose,and slows waste removal -- affected brain tissue functions abnormally, stops functioning, and will die if ischemia persists Rupture of an artery (20% of strokes) -- causes hemorrhage within or around the brain. This distorts, compresses, and tears surrounding tissue Both kinds of stroke can increase intracranial pressure, a serious complication that can lead to the patient’s death
What is a TIA? Lumen ventricle A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a brief episode in which neurologic deficits occur and then disappear completely Most TIAs last a few minutes to an hour However they may persist up to 24 hours No neurologic deficits remain once the attack has ended, because little or no brain tissue is permanently damaged A TIA is a warning sign that the stage is set for an ischemic stroke. Treatment of patients with TIAs can reduce their risk of stroke
TIA FACTS TIA FACTS Lumen ventricle As many as 20% of patients who have a new stroke retrospectively report on or more prior TIAs After a TIA, the annual risk of stroke is about 5% for the next five years After A TIA, the risk of a stroke, myocardial infarction, or death is about 8% annually for the next five years The risk of stroke is highest during the first month % of subsequent strokes occur during the first month, and 40-50% during the first year.
Carotid Bifurcation artherosclerotic plaque and thrombus Carotid Bifurcation artherosclerotic plaque and thrombus