Presentation on theme: "Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Stroke - Overview Third leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Total cost of strokes in the U.S. is roughly."— Presentation transcript:
Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) Stroke - Overview Third leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Total cost of strokes in the U.S. is roughly $43 billion a year. $15,000 a year in medical care costs during the first 3 months after the attack. Age is the principal risk factor. Most strokes occur after the age of 65 More common in men Second greatest risk factor is high blood pressure Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) - Symptoms are temporary but should be seen as a warning sign that a stroke is likely to occur.
Incidence Approximately 500k Americans each year 3 million Americans have survived strokes 2 million Americans subsequently suffer from paralysis, speech & memory loss.
Symptoms Depends on the type of stroke and location of the lesion Contra-lateral impairment Hemiparesis - weakness on one side of the body - entire side; face, arm, or leg Drooping of the mouth Drooling Numbness on one side Loss of vision in one visual field (transient monocular blindness) Dysarthria (slurred speech)
Symptoms cont’d Visual disturbances e.g. double vision, altered visual perception Aphasia - difficulties with expressive and/or receptive language; can not name objects Vertigo - dizziness, spinning sensation, imbalance Memory difficulties Behavioral or personality changes Swallowing
Causes Ischemic Stroke 85% of all strokes are from ischemia Lack of blood flow, or major disturbance of blood flow due to the obstruction of a blood vessel Atherosclerosis - an accumulation of plaque, cholesterol, and blood clots forms to the point of impeding subsequent blood flow.
Causes cont’d Intracranial Hemorrhage 15% of strokes caused from hemorrhage (bleeding) in the brain Hypertension, bleeding from tumors, trauma, illicit drug use, high blood pressure Pt.s experience a sudden headache, vomiting, depressed level of consciousness Some symptoms are caused by pressure associated with blood accumulation which is referred to as a hematoma
Warning Signs Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially if it is unilateral Sudden confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech Sudden difficulty seeing in one or both eyes Sudden difficulty walking dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Sudden severe headache with no known cause