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The Cardiovascular System Blood The Heart Blood Vessels.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cardiovascular System Blood The Heart Blood Vessels."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cardiovascular System Blood The Heart Blood Vessels

2 Cardiovascular system Functions: Transports: oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients wastes chemical messengers Homeostasis of pH temperature clotting Disease Defense

3 Systemic Vessels


5 Blood = Plasma + Formed (Cellular) Elements Plasma ~ 55% blood volume ~ 92% of plasma is water High dissolved oxygen content Dissolved proteins Albumins Globulins Fibrinogen Cells ~ 45% blood volume RBCs ~ 99% of cells WBCs ~1% of cells

6 Albumins –60% of plasma proteins –viscosity The Proteins in Plasma Globulins –35% of plasma proteins Immunoglobulins attack foreign invaders Fibrinogen –React in clotting reaction –Form fibrin (serum = plasma - fibrinogen)

7 Cellular Components RBCs (erythrocytes)~ 99% of all cells. ~ 1/2 blood volume. Lacks mitochondria, ribosomes, nuclei Life span = ~120 days Hematocrit = % of blood occupied by cellular components (~ RBC volume)

8 Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBCs) on the tip of a hypodermic needle.

9 Hemoglobin

10 Erythropoietin

11 Life and death of an RBC


13 Anemia Pernicious anemia –Low Fe absorption – Vitamin B12 and instrinsic factor Hemorrhagic anemia Sickle cell anemia Hypochromic anemia Hemolytic anemia polycythemia

14 Pernicious anemia

15 Blood Types - ABO

16 What type?


18 Erythroblastosis fetalis

19 Neutrophils –70% circulating leukocytes –Highly active aggressive phagocytes Eosinophils (acidophils) –Much less common –Attracted to foreign compounds reacted with antibodies –Parasitic infections Basophils –Relatively rare –allergeries –Release histamines. Granular Leukocytes (WBCs)

20 Monocytes –Migrate into peripheral tissues and differential into Macrophages –Highly mobile phagocytic cells –diapedesis Lymphocytes –Primary cell of the lymphatic system T-cells attack foreign cells directly B-cells produce antibodies Agranular Leukocytes


22 Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Platelet cells (Thrombocytes) –Fragments of Megakaryocytes –enclosed packets of cytoplasm for blood clotting

23 Pulmonary circuit - from heart to lungs back to heart Systemic circuit - from heart to body back to heart

24 Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Veins = vessels that return blood to the heart. Capillaries = smallest vessels, found between smallest arteries and veins. These are the exchange vessels.

25 Myocardium Chambers Valves (one-way-flow) Pericardial Sac The Heart


27 Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity


29 Epicardium –Visceral pericardium Myocardium –Muscular wall of the heart Endocardium –Epithelium of inner surface

30 Most of the heart is Myocardium - Contractile Myocardiocytes * Interconnected by intercalated discs The Heart is Dual Pump


32 Position and Orientation of the Heart



35 Sectional Anatomy of the Heart

36 RA -> ______ valve -> RV -> _____ valve -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary ______s -> lungs -> pulmonary _____s -> LA -> ____ valve -> LV -> ___ valve -> ascending aorta -> aortic arch Receives blood from systemic circuit Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Coronary veins Return blood to coronary sinus then on to right ventricle Foramen ovale open during embryonic development Fossa ovalis after birth Blood Flow through Heart

37 Right Ventricle Blood comes from right atrium to right ventricle through the atroventricular (AV) valve - Pulmonary semilunar valve Blood leaves Rt Ventricle via pulmonary Semilunar valve to pulmonary trunk. Branches to left and right pulmonary arteries - Chordae tendineae - Papillary muscles Right AV valve / Tricuspid valve Three cusps of fibrous tissue

38 Valves of the Heart How do papillary muscles work?

39 Heart Valves and Heart Sounds Placement of a stethoscope varies depending on which heart sounds and valves are of interest. Closure of the AV valves create the 1 st heart sound (‘lub’). Closure of the semilunar valves create the 2 nd heart sound (‘dupp’).

40 Coronary Circulation






46 Normal Functional Heart Anatomy

47 Congenital Heart Defects



50 The Cardiac Cycle

51 Recording of the electrical activities in the heart The Electrocardiogram P wave = Atrial Depolarization QRS complex = Ventricular Depolarization T wave = Ventricular Repolarization

52 ECG


54 The Conducting System of the Heart



57 Heart cycle

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