5Blood = Plasma + Formed (Cellular) Elements ~ 55% blood volume~ 92% of plasma is waterHigh dissolved oxygen contentDissolved proteinsAlbuminsGlobulinsFibrinogenCells~ 45% blood volumeRBCs ~ 99% of cellsWBCs ~1% of cells
6The Proteins in Plasma Albumins 60% of plasma proteins viscosity Globulins35% of plasma proteinsImmunoglobulins attack foreign invadersFibrinogenReact in clotting reactionForm fibrin (serum = plasma - fibrinogen)
7Cellular Components RBCs (erythrocytes)~ 99% of all cells. ~ 1/2 blood volume.Hematocrit = % of blood occupied by cellular components (~ RBC volume)Lacks mitochondria,ribosomes, nucleiLife span = ~120 days
8Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBCs)on the tip of a hypodermic needle.
19Granular Leukocytes (WBCs) Neutrophils70% circulating leukocytesHighly active aggressive phagocytesEosinophils (acidophils)Much less commonAttracted to foreign compounds reacted with antibodiesParasitic infectionsBasophilsRelatively rareallergeriesRelease histamines.
20Agranular Leukocytes Lymphocytes Primary cell of the lymphatic system T-cells attack foreign cells directlyB-cells produce antibodiesMonocytesMigrate into peripheral tissues and differential into MacrophagesHighly mobile phagocytic cellsdiapedesis
22Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Platelet cells (Thrombocytes) Fragments of Megakaryocytesenclosed packets of cytoplasm for blood clottingNeverLetMonkeysEatBananas
23Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit - from heart to lungs back to heart to bodyback to heart
24Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Veins = vessels that return blood to the heart.Capillaries = smallest vessels, found between smallest arteriesand veins. These are the exchange vessels.
36Blood Flow through Heart RA -> ______ valve -> RV -> _____ valve -> pulmonary trunk-> pulmonary ______s -> lungs -> pulmonary _____s -> LA -> ____ valve -> LV -> ___ valve -> ascending aorta -> aortic archReceives blood from systemic circuitSuperior vena cavaInferior vena cavaCoronary veinsReturn blood to coronary sinus then on to right ventricleForamen ovale open during embryonic developmentFossa ovalis after birth
37Right Ventricle Right AV valve / Tricuspid valve Blood comes from right atrium to right ventricle through the atroventricular (AV) valveRight AV valve / Tricuspid valveThree cusps of fibrous tissue- Chordae tendineae- Papillary muscles- Pulmonary semilunar valveBlood leaves Rt Ventricle via pulmonary Semilunar valve to pulmonary trunk.Branches to left and right pulmonary arteries
38How do papillary muscles work? Valves of the HeartHow do papillary muscles work?
39Heart Valves and Heart Sounds Closure of the AV valves create the 1st heart sound (‘lub’).Closure of the semilunar valves create the 2nd heart sound (‘dupp’).Placement of a stethoscope varies depending on which heart sounds and valves are of interest.