Neutrophils –70% circulating leukocytes –Highly active aggressive phagocytes Eosinophils (acidophils) –Much less common –Attracted to foreign compounds reacted with antibodies –Parasitic infections Basophils –Relatively rare –allergeries –Release histamines. Granular Leukocytes (WBCs)
Monocytes –Migrate into peripheral tissues and differential into Macrophages –Highly mobile phagocytic cells –diapedesis Lymphocytes –Primary cell of the lymphatic system T-cells attack foreign cells directly B-cells produce antibodies Agranular Leukocytes
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Platelet cells (Thrombocytes) –Fragments of Megakaryocytes –enclosed packets of cytoplasm for blood clotting
Pulmonary circuit - from heart to lungs back to heart Systemic circuit - from heart to body back to heart
Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Veins = vessels that return blood to the heart. Capillaries = smallest vessels, found between smallest arteries and veins. These are the exchange vessels.
Myocardium Chambers Valves (one-way-flow) Pericardial Sac The Heart
Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity
Epicardium –Visceral pericardium Myocardium –Muscular wall of the heart Endocardium –Epithelium of inner surface
Most of the heart is Myocardium - Contractile Myocardiocytes * Interconnected by intercalated discs The Heart is Dual Pump
Position and Orientation of the Heart
Sectional Anatomy of the Heart
RA -> ______ valve -> RV -> _____ valve -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary ______s -> lungs -> pulmonary _____s -> LA -> ____ valve -> LV -> ___ valve -> ascending aorta -> aortic arch Receives blood from systemic circuit Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Coronary veins Return blood to coronary sinus then on to right ventricle Foramen ovale open during embryonic development Fossa ovalis after birth Blood Flow through Heart
Right Ventricle Blood comes from right atrium to right ventricle through the atroventricular (AV) valve - Pulmonary semilunar valve Blood leaves Rt Ventricle via pulmonary Semilunar valve to pulmonary trunk. Branches to left and right pulmonary arteries - Chordae tendineae - Papillary muscles Right AV valve / Tricuspid valve Three cusps of fibrous tissue
Valves of the Heart How do papillary muscles work?
Heart Valves and Heart Sounds Placement of a stethoscope varies depending on which heart sounds and valves are of interest. Closure of the AV valves create the 1 st heart sound (‘lub’). Closure of the semilunar valves create the 2 nd heart sound (‘dupp’).
Normal Functional Heart Anatomy
Congenital Heart Defects
The Cardiac Cycle
Recording of the electrical activities in the heart The Electrocardiogram P wave = Atrial Depolarization QRS complex = Ventricular Depolarization T wave = Ventricular Repolarization