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The Cardiovascular System

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Presentation on theme: "The Cardiovascular System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cardiovascular System
Blood The Heart Blood Vessels

2 Cardiovascular system
Functions: Transports: oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients wastes chemical messengers Homeostasis of pH temperature clotting Disease Defense

3 Systemic Vessels


5 Blood = Plasma + Formed (Cellular) Elements
~ 55% blood volume ~ 92% of plasma is water High dissolved oxygen content Dissolved proteins Albumins Globulins Fibrinogen Cells ~ 45% blood volume RBCs ~ 99% of cells WBCs ~1% of cells

6 The Proteins in Plasma Albumins 60% of plasma proteins viscosity
Globulins 35% of plasma proteins Immunoglobulins attack foreign invaders Fibrinogen React in clotting reaction Form fibrin (serum = plasma - fibrinogen)

7 Cellular Components RBCs (erythrocytes)~ 99% of all cells.
~ 1/2 blood volume. Hematocrit = % of blood occupied by cellular components (~ RBC volume) Lacks mitochondria, ribosomes, nuclei Life span = ~120 days

8 Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM)
of Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBCs) on the tip of a hypodermic needle.

9 Hemoglobin

10 Erythropoietin

11 Life and death of an RBC


13 Anemia Pernicious anemia Hemorrhagic anemia Sickle cell anemia
Low Fe absorption – Vitamin B12 and instrinsic factor Hemorrhagic anemia Sickle cell anemia Hypochromic anemia Hemolytic anemia polycythemia

14 Pernicious anemia

15 Blood Types - ABO

16 What type?

17 What type?

18 Erythroblastosis fetalis

19 Granular Leukocytes (WBCs)
Neutrophils 70% circulating leukocytes Highly active aggressive phagocytes Eosinophils (acidophils) Much less common Attracted to foreign compounds reacted with antibodies Parasitic infections Basophils Relatively rare allergeries Release histamines.

20 Agranular Leukocytes Lymphocytes Primary cell of the lymphatic system
T-cells attack foreign cells directly B-cells produce antibodies Monocytes Migrate into peripheral tissues and differential into Macrophages Highly mobile phagocytic cells diapedesis


22 Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Platelet cells (Thrombocytes)
Fragments of Megakaryocytes enclosed packets of cytoplasm for blood clotting Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

23 Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit - from heart to lungs back to heart
to body back to heart

24 Arteries = vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Veins = vessels that return blood to the heart. Capillaries = smallest vessels, found between smallest arteries and veins. These are the exchange vessels.

25 The Heart Myocardium Chambers Valves (one-way-flow) Pericardial Sac


27 Location of the Heart in the Thoracic Cavity


29 Epicardium Visceral pericardium Myocardium Muscular wall of the heart Endocardium Epithelium of inner surface

30 The Heart is Dual Pump Most of the heart is Myocardium
- Contractile Myocardiocytes * Interconnected by intercalated discs


32 Position and Orientation of the Heart



35 Sectional Anatomy of the Heart

36 Blood Flow through Heart
RA -> ______ valve -> RV -> _____ valve -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary ______s -> lungs -> pulmonary _____s -> LA -> ____ valve -> LV -> ___ valve -> ascending aorta -> aortic arch Receives blood from systemic circuit Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Coronary veins Return blood to coronary sinus then on to right ventricle Foramen ovale open during embryonic development Fossa ovalis after birth

37 Right Ventricle Right AV valve / Tricuspid valve
Blood comes from right atrium to right ventricle through the atroventricular (AV) valve Right AV valve / Tricuspid valve Three cusps of fibrous tissue - Chordae tendineae - Papillary muscles - Pulmonary semilunar valve Blood leaves Rt Ventricle via pulmonary Semilunar valve to pulmonary trunk. Branches to left and right pulmonary arteries

38 How do papillary muscles work?
Valves of the Heart How do papillary muscles work?

39 Heart Valves and Heart Sounds
Closure of the AV valves create the 1st heart sound (‘lub’). Closure of the semilunar valves create the 2nd heart sound (‘dupp’). Placement of a stethoscope varies depending on which heart sounds and valves are of interest.

40 Coronary Circulation






46 Normal Functional Heart Anatomy

47 Congenital Heart Defects

48 Congenital Heart Defects

49 Congenital Heart Defects

50 The Cardiac Cycle

51 The Electrocardiogram
Recording of the electrical activities in the heart P wave = Atrial Depolarization QRS complex = Ventricular Depolarization T wave = Ventricular Repolarization

52 ECG


54 The Conducting System of the Heart



57 Heart cycle

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