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The End of the Revolution Forging a New Nation. Independent Governed States By 1777, ten of the former colonies had written constitutions Maryland, Pennsylvania,

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Presentation on theme: "The End of the Revolution Forging a New Nation. Independent Governed States By 1777, ten of the former colonies had written constitutions Maryland, Pennsylvania,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of the Revolution Forging a New Nation

2 Independent Governed States By 1777, ten of the former colonies had written constitutions Maryland, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina had submitted their to a vote of the people for ratification. Each state constitution began with a declaration listing basic rights and freedoms i.e. religion, jury trial

3 Powers of State Government Legislative powers – Elected two house legislature Executive branch elected governor Judicial Branch system of courts Safeguard against tyranny Voting All white males who owned some property Office Holding Higher property ownership qualification

4 New Central Government Articles of Confederation Ratification was delayed (4 years) due to disputed territory Established a central government consisted of one body – Congress Each state given one vote 9 out of 13 needed to pass laws To amend unanimous vote required

5 POWERS of the Articles Wage war Make treaties Send diplomatic representatives Coin and borrow money Maintain an army and navy Manage Indian Affairs

6 Accomplishments of the Articles Winning the War Negotiated favorable terms in the treaty of peace Land Ordinance of 1785 Established public policy for western lands Northwest Ordinance 1787 Granted self-government to territory and prohibited slavery Established rules for creating new states

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8 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Western Lands – ownership? Congress received all lands west of Appalachian Mountains Under the Ordinance U.S. sold land to land companies – established a government and Congress appointed governors

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11 Social Change After the War Abolition of Aristocratic Titles, Role of Women, Separation of Church and State, and Slavery

12 Abolition of Aristocratic Titles Abolished old institutions from Europe – No legislature could grant titles of nobility – No court could recognize the practice of primogeniture (the first born son’s right to inherit his parent’s property)

13 Separation of Church and State Refused to give financial support to any religious group New England – Congregational Church continued to receive state support in the form of religious tax

14 Women Revolution depended on Women – Worked as cooks and nurses on the battlefield Women ran the family farms and businesses Provided much of the food and clothing necessary for the war effort.

15 Slavery Contradicted the spirit of the revolution For a time leaders recognized this fact Some southern plantation owners freed their slaves. Majority of slave owners came to believe slavery was essential to their economy

16 Weakness of the Articles of Confederation Financial *War debts unpaid – worthless paper money- underlying problem Congress had no taxing power and could only request that the states donate money for national needs

17 Foreign Relations *European nations had little respect for the new nation - could not pay debt - take effective and united action in a crisis Britain and Spain threatened to take advantage of U.S. weakness – interest in western lands

18 Domestic *Shay’s Rebellion Rebellion of farmers against high state taxes, imprisonment over debts, and lack of paper money The farmers stopped the collection of taxes and forced the closure of debtor court Massachusetts militia stopped the Rebellion

19 Major Problems facing U.S

20 Foreign Relations between U.S. and Europe troubled States failed to adhere to the Treaty of Paris required loyalist property to be restored and debts to foreigners be repaid Under the Articles the U.S. could do nothing to stop Britain from placing trade restrictions on trade and maintaining military outposts on western frontier.

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22 Economic Weakness and Quarrels Among States  Foreign trade reduced and limited credit due to nonpayment of war debts  leads to widespread economic depression  Inability to levy taxes and printing of worthless paper money  States treated each other with suspicion and competed economic advantage  Placed tariffs and restricted movement of goods across state lines  Boundary disputes – increased rivalry and tension

23 Annapolis Convention George Washington hosted a conference at his home – Mt. Vernon – 1785 Delegates from Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania agreed problems were serious Decide to invite all states to meeting in Annapolis, Maryland In Annapolis, only 5 states sent delegates Madison and Hamilton persuade others for a convention to revise the Articles


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