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Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution

2 State Governments (pg. 57) While the Revolutionary War was being fought, leaders of the 13 colonies worked to change them into independent states (each w/ its own constitution). 1.List of Rights: basic rights & freedoms that state officials couldn’t infringe (encroach on). 2.Separation of Powers: most separated into 3 branches & safeguard against tyranny (legislative, elected legislatures) (executive, elected governor) (judicial, system of courts) 3. Voting: extended to all white males who owned property (property requirement, minimal amount) 4. Office-Holding: those seeking elected office were usually held to a higher property qualification than the voters.

3 Social Change (pg. 58) 1.Abolition of Aristocratic Titles: no legislature could grant titles of nobility (primogeniture was done away with) (large estates taken from Loyalists, raise $ to pay for War). 2.Separation of Church & State: states refused to give financial support to any religious group (Anglican Church, unpopular) (connected to England) (religious tax eventually stopped) 3.Women: most important contribution was to help maintain the economy (remained 2 nd class status) 4.Slavery: contradicted the spirit of the Revolution (“all men are created equal“) (some steps made to correct it) (northern states freed slaves) (south kept theirs, tied/economy)


5 Articles of Confederation (pg. 59) Ratification Delayed by a dispute over the Alleghenies wilderness (R.I. & Md. want Congress to own it) (Va. & N.Y. finally agree) Structure of Government Congress was the only branch Each state given 1 vote (9 votes required to pass laws) To amend the Articles, a unanimous vote was required Powers Given: wage war, make treaties, send diplomatic representatives, & borrow money Not given: regulate commerce, collect taxes (to finance its decisions, rely on states) (no executive power to enforce its laws)

6 Accomplishments (pg. 60) 1.Winning the War: credit for Revolution victory (favorable terms with Great Britain) 2.Land Ordinance of 1785: congress established a public policy for the western lands (set aside 1 section of land in each township for education) 3.Northwest Ordinance of 1787: area between Great Lakes & Ohio River (rules set for creating states) (limits placed on territories) (limited self-government, no slavery)


8 Problems w/ the Articles (pg. 126 cont.) 1.Financial: most war debts went unpaid (states & congress issued worthless paper money) (congress can’t tax, so can’t pay debts) (congress asks states to donate money) 2.Domestic: Summer of 1786, Captain Daniel Shays led other farmers in an uprising against: high taxes, debtor’s prison, lack of paper money. (stopped collection of taxes, forced closing of courts) (congress too weak to do anything) (Mass. Militia was sent to settle the problem)

9 The U.S. Under the Articles (pg. 62) Economic Weaknesses & Interstate Quarrels (failure to pay) (little foreign trade, bad credit) (Articles can’t tax, worthless money) (13 states distrusted/taxed each other) (interstate, rivalry & tension) The Annapolis Convention (Washington hosted/conference) (successful) (4 states decided to meet again/Annapolis, Maryland) (all states invited, 5 showed up) (successful again) (Madison/Hamilton convinced others to meet again, Philadelphia) (purpose of meeting, revise the Articles)

10 Drafting the Constitution in Philadelphia (Pg. 134) The Delegates (college-educated, young, experience, wealthy) (chose to be secretive) (Washington, chairperson) (pull it off) (James Madison, “father” of the Constitution) (push/strong nation) (nationalists/present) (major figures weren’t present) (S. Adams?) Representation (bigger/population, the more representation needed) (equal representation or get dominated by large states) (Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan) (Connecticut Compromise) (birth of modern bicameral Congress)

11 (pg. 64 cont.) Slavery (South angers North, insist on counting their slaves) (no political rights, shouldn’t be counted as part of population) (3/5’s Compromise, a slave counts as 3/5’s of a white person) (determines taxation & representation) (importation ends, 20 years) Trade (North wants to regulate trade, foreign/domestic) (tariffs?) (South doesn’t want tariff on exports) (Commercial Compromise) Powers & Election of President (disagreed over executives’ term) (how to elect him?) (don’t trust/masses, uneducated) (mob rule) (electoral college) (each state assigned a number of electors) Ratification (17 weeks later, convention approved) (draft the Constitution) (submit to states for ratification) (9 of 13 states required/ratification)

12 Federalists & Anti-Federalists (pg. 66) The Federalist Papers (ratification is fiercely debated/1 year) (Federalists, support Constitution/strong central govt.) (Anti-Federalists, support Articles) The Federalist Papers (persuasive essays written/NY papers) (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay) (explained advantages of ratification of Constitution) Outcome (Anti-Federalists objected, no Bill of Rights) (Federalists promised to include later) (Va./NY had not voted) (needed for unity/strength) Virginia (George Mason/Patrick Henry not sold, Constitution) (Virginia rallies around Washington/Madison/Marshall) Other States (states choose to follow Virginia’s lead) (promise of including a Bill of Rights)

13 Adding the Bill of Rights (pg. 67) Arguments for A Bill of Rights (fought a War to get rid of a tyrant) (people need protection from a potentially abusive strong central govt) Arguments Against A Bill of Rights (unlisted rights, violated?) (elected officials have to follow people’s needs) The First Ten Amendments (adopted in 1791) (protect people)

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