When WWI ended, it was called the “war to end all wars” The treaty of Versailles officially ended the war and was meant to punish Germany and to make sure Germany was not a threat anymore
There were many parts to the treaty, but the following terms were the most controversial: Germany had to reduce its military to 100 000 men Germany was not allowed to have a navy Ger. was not allowed submarines, aircraft, or heavy artillery. Germany had to pay 5 billion in reparations War Guilt Clause Germany agreed to take all the blame for the war (losses and damages)
All the powers met at Versailles Palace in France to sign the famous treaty in 1919 This is why the treaty is called the Treaty of Versailles
Every country in Europe was in bad shape Germany was in ruins because of the burdens imposed by the Treaty Worst of all was the debt Germany had to pay The newly elected German parliament could not agree on a way to help Germany survive
The governments that came in the 20s in Germany tried to pay back the debts. But they did not have enough money so they did two things: 1.Borrowed money from the USA and promised to pay this back (Dawes Plan) 2. They printed more German marks and used the marks to buy US dollars to pay off the loans and reparations
Stacks of German Marks, which were practically worthless due to hyperinflation Woman feeding her tiled stove with banknotes
More German marks (like dollars) went into circulation which made them worthless Businesses demanded more marks for their products Workers wanted more for labour People would take bags or wheelbarrows full of money to buy products The German mark became worthless on the world market and it was difficult to purchase foreign goods.
This woman is using paper money to light her stove in 1923 What does this tell you about the value of the Germany money at this time?
YearPriceYearPrice 19190.261923 (jan)700.00 19201.201923 (may)1200.00 19211.351923 (Sept)2 000 000.00 19223.501923 (Nov)80, 000, 000, 000.00 Which year had the most rapid rise in prices?
The German people were destroyed, humiliated and in desperate need of change Extreme parties began to become popular because they offered a clear message Among these parties were the Nazis They promised to help the economy but they were also racist
Desperate, the people of Germany clung to the promises made by the Nazis and their leader, Adolf Hitler The word ‘Nazi’ is a shortened version of the first word in the party’s German name— Nazionalistische Which means ‘national’
Use the KWL chart to record any information you already know. Write things you would like to know about him in the second column. As we go through the lesson and our readings, look for answers to your questions.
During World War I; Hitler, who was born in Austria, served in the German army as a dispatch runner. After the war, he was a member of a special army instructional unit created to combat socialist and democratic propaganda. By 1920, Hitler was the leader of a small political party called the National Socialist German Worker’s Party.
Hitler used people’s struggles and bitterness He told the people he had a plan to make Germany a great nation again He promised to do the following: Stop paying the reparations to other nations Invest in German industries to create growth End unemployment Build Germany’s military
Hitler was a very talented and effective speaker, who appealed to people’s emotions more than their intellect.
The Nazis became a very popular group in Germany In 1933, they won a plurality—they had more seats than any other party in in the election Other parties were not organized to form an alliance against the Nazis Adolf Hitler became Chancellor
When he became Chancellor, Hitler asked parliament for special powers to help deal with the enemies of Germany. once they granted him these powers, Hitler abolished parliament and became the dictator (the Fuhrer) and his word was law Hitler successfully took control of all of Germany
Anyone who opposed Hitler would be imprisoned, tortured or murdered He began to reduce people’s civil liberties Trade unions were banned Newspapers had to support Nazi policies Teachers had to tell their classes about how great Hitler was All books had to conform to Nazi views