Prevention Work Together instead of working on one’s own Join some activities that you love Say no to the negative thoughts Positive thinking
Cure To control the amount of neurotransmitters -TCAs, tricyclic antidepressants -MAOIs, monoamine oxidase inhibitor -SSRIs, selective reuptake inhibitors -norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors -noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant
Bipolar disorder 跡象與症狀 concentration problem Mania Hypomanic violent delusions Bipolar disorder 的過程 Manic phaseManic phase ： high self-esteem, increased energy, over talkativeness Depressive phaseDepressive phase ： comes with lowered ability to feel pleasure, loss of motivation, sleep disturbances, and feeling of worthless
Cause Genetic ： genes related to serotonin (SLC6A4 and TPH2), dopamine (DRD4 and SLC6A3) Physiological ： Abnormalities in the structure and/or function of certain brain circuits could underlie bipolar. A general reduction of brain volume and anatomically specific differences in areas such as the prefrontal cortex and the globus pallidus are most commonly found Environmental
Diagnosis Criteria and subtypes Bipolar I disorder 、 Bipolar II disorder Cyclothymia 、 Bipolar Disorder NOS Rapid cycling ： is a course specifier that may be applied to any of the above subtypes. Differential diagnosis ： Many mental disorders involve similar symptoms to bipolar disorder. Challenges ： Not easy to beunderstood and recognized
Prognosis Functioning Recovery and recurrence Mortality 1/3 people with bipolar disorder report past attempts of suicide or complete it,and the annual average suicide rate is 0.4%, which is 10 to 20 times that of the general population
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