Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Depression. Two Major Categories of Mood Disorder Major depressive disorder (unipolar): Lengthy, uninterrupted periods of depressed mood. Manic."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 Depression
Two Major Categories of Mood Disorder Major depressive disorder (unipolar): Lengthy, uninterrupted periods of depressed mood. Manic depressive disorder (bipolar): Cycling between periods of elevated mood (mania) and depression. While sharing the common feature of depression, these are unique and separate disorders.
Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms Depressed mood most of the time Lack of energy or restlessness Loss of pleasure in normally fun activities Feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness Sleep disturbances Eating disturbances Difficulty concentrating Suicidal thoughts
Major Depressive Disorder is the “Common Cold” of Mental Disorders As many as 12% of men and 21% of women may experience major depressive disorder during their lifetimes. Most patients with MDD are women. –Prior to adolescence, boys and girls are equally likely to experience depression. –In adults, about 2/3 of patients with depression are female. Most patients experience 5– 6 episodes during their lifetimes.
Age of onset of major depression
Bipolar Disorder Periods of mania alternate with depression. Mania is characterized by: –Inflated self-esteem (grandiosity) –Reduced need for sleep –Talkativeness –Racing thoughts –Distractibility –Goal-oriented behavior –Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder Affects 0.4–1.2% of the population Males and females are equally likely to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Rare prior to puberty; approaches adult prevalence in adolescence May be more prevalent among artistic and creative people
Mood Disorders and Creativity
Risk Factors Concordance rate for mood disorders among identical and fraternal twins
Risk Factors Stress: The HPA Axis
Risk Factors Stress: Abnormalities in glucocorticoids
Depressed people: enter REM earlier. spend little time in Stage 3 or 4. awaken frequently. Risk Factors Sleep Patterns